“我们可以说，景观设计师的终生目标和工作就是帮助人类。使人，建筑物，社区，城市以及他们的生活，同生活的地球和谐相处。” 学生奖的第三集是通用设计荣誉奖Roman Water_Gate, a New Entrance for the Metropolitan Area of Rome来自中国的景观设计师杨觅 Mi Yang,此设计为杨觅在哈佛大学期间的学生作业。 “形式之优美，表达之华丽。强有力的统一。分析无懈可击，是的，这就是理所应当的解决方案。”2011学生奖评审 项目说明Fiumicino，一个临近罗马机场的小镇，正经历着发展成为一个新的商业港口所经历的城市化过程。从景观构架着手，解决场地原有基础设施在新城市化中的困境，提出一个区域规模的景观框架，构筑一个环境框架以协同上述问题，并完美的诱发场地循序渐进的进行错综复杂的转型。 背景和环境罗马市计划在地中海交通枢纽的达芬奇国际机场附近的Fiumicino小镇发展一个新的商业港口。这个发展将需要当地重新改变基础性的设施配置。对罗马来说，这个新门户无疑带来巨大的机会，为城市带来重大的改变，在转型期间新的过境流量与原有的城市肌理需要保持一致。场地位于Fiumicino历史中心的北面，人口7万，是一片具有历史价值和环境价值的湿地。东边是国际机场，西北方向是地中海。这里历史丰富但相对较新。这里濒临古罗马时期地中海的港口Claudio (A.D. 42-62) 和 Traiano (A.D. 102-112).20世纪50年代机场建设时，大大的改变了这一地区的情况，农业被放弃以至于出现荒地。随后，为了空港服务和基础设施在这里建设了新一轮的地产开发。此外，这个新门户必定引发当地城市化。这便是Fiumicino所面临的一切。 挑战，机遇和目标Fiumicino在无法避免的城市化进程中面临诸多挑战：高居不下的地下水位引起地面下沉，同时80%的区域处于被暴雨淹没的现实中。这几乎是不可能发展的场地。能否在强大的程式化进程中，以灵活动态的框架来应对不可预测性的未来，协调期间面临的各种问题，并能够引导，鼓励和产生别样的都市生活？怎样对待新镇和机场的关系？怎样保持平等和相互间效率对话可以进行？Fiumicino是怎么样的？是不是需要结束通常郊区千篇一律，充斥着庞大的交通基础设施，汽车旅馆，停车场和低品质的生活空间的状况？怎样在变化之中获得Fiumicino的身份？该项目力求回答上述问题，并通过区域规模的管理建设，让景观框架系统足够灵活，可以独到的，对各种情况进行干预，使得场地获得自然性的，可持续的真正转型。场地的战略位置为可以与不可预测性情况发生交互的灵活景观框架提供了机会。 解决方案/设计项目包含两个尺度下的考虑。区域尺度中，兴建了以地形为基础的“景观基础设施”来应对多重挑战，为未来发展中不同的城市活动所需地面做好准备。人尺度中，吸收罗马城市规划和文艺复兴时别墅的灵感，以全新的方式引入视觉控制系统，保证未来不可预知及动态的城市条件下的生活质量。设计的总体概念是建立防洪区域以及日常雨水收集廊道，降低未来城市的负担，节约发展用地，运作区域尺度生态廊道。视觉控制网络控制场地地形中的节点，节点间用道路链接，具有不同功能，成为城市生活的点区域。联系区域尺度和人尺度下的考量，为城市化的发生打下了坚实的基础，并可满足大规模人类城市行为。区域尺度，土方来自港口并在现场堆切以适应要求。雨水管理基于两种情景：暴雨管理和日常雨水管理。地形生成遵循：1 确定雨水在场地中的出口；2定义湿地或雨水收集池手机多余雨水；3与城市现有收集通道联通，保证场地开放；4创建新的雨水廊道，并与现有城市和未来发展的雨水廊道链接。在这样一种自然廊道之中，里面的土地适合于发展。此景观基础设施可以在以上两种情形中以及各种水情况下使用，其丰富的地形与自然力量之间形成了互动。人尺度下，视觉控制轴网通过视觉影响分析了现有的城市结构，定义出街道，空地和镇中心。采用同样的逻辑，激发出景观基础设施中潜在可能的空间体验节点。这两套轴网控制连接了未来的视觉联系线。视觉节点被逐步明晰并与其他的视觉轴相关，或与山脊相交。视觉节点被转化为与人行道和自行车道相联系的开放休憩空间，其功能的确定取决于地形和未来的发展。比如有的作为未来公园的入口，有的作为远眺高台，他们的功能和空间可以非常灵活和开放，适应未来不断变化的情况。因为该地区拥有丰富的考古文物，所以建议成为一个独特的开放的户外展览场所。设计的功能包括了场地定位，大规模基础设施，应对不同水位的防洪设施，与基础设施并置的古代文物，日常生活。上述内容连同社会认可感一起，都是设计的出发点。 非常感谢设计方杨觅将项目介绍和项目图片授权gooood发行。Appreciation towards Mi Yang for providing the following description: “Incredibly beautiful form making; the drawings are drop-dead gorgeous. Strong forms pull it all together. It's compelling in laying analysis on analysis, leading to an "of course!" solution.”—2011 Student Awards Jury Project StatementWith the advent of a new commercial port, Fiumicino, a small town near Rome International Airport, would embrace its inevitable, but dynamic urbanization. Recognizing the structural force of landscape, the project responds to site's predicament between infrastructure construction, incompatibility with development and emerging urbanism, by proposing a territorial scale landscape framework to steer foregoing issues towards synergy to construct an environmental scaffold, celebrating and interacting with gradual unfolding of unpredictable transformation, synchronized with genius loci. Background and ContextThe city of Rome has planned the development of a new commercial port in the vicinity of Fiumicino, close to the International Airport Leonardo da Vinci, the main Mediterranean hub. The realization of such an infrastructure will cause a substantial reconfiguration of Roman coastal landscape, from which fundamental changes in the dynamics of surrounding territory will ensue. For Rome, the new port offers the opportunity to re-capture the historical gates of the city via the sea, whilst for the urban area of Fiumicino, the implementation of an infrastructure of such dimensions implies significant transformation on the loci mainly through the new crossing flows in consistent conversation with pre-existing urban fabric. The site locates north of the historic center of Fiumicino, (with a population of 70,000 people), and borders north with a wetland zone of high historical and environmental value (Coccia di Morto), east with the International Airport Leonardo da Vinci and west with the Mediterranean Sea. This is a territory of rich history but of relatively new formation. It was part of the sea area adjacent to the antique city of Portus, one of the major Mediterranean ports at the time of ancient Rome where ships entered and exited the port of Claudio (A.D. 42-62) and Traiano (A.D. 102-112). In 1950s, the construction of the International Airport drastically changed this area. The vicinity of such infrastructure initially resulted in total abandonment of agricultural land, which appears today as wasteland. Subsequently the increase in air traffic and the resulting demand for space to build service infrastructure has generated renewed real estate development interest. Moreover, the completion of a new port will result in this area's inevitable urbanization, which is outlined by the Master Plan of the Town of Fiumicino. Challenge, Opportunity and ObjectiveFiumicino is anticipating its unavoidable intense urbanization surge brought about by the port proposal. Despite of all the great potentials Fiumicino possesses, risks and problems exist in terms of accommodating incoming development. The ground is sinking, as exceptionally high underground water level results in unstable substrate soil. Furthermore, nearly 80% of the town is exposed to flood risks, rendering the site almost impossible for any future development. Even with such a strong incentive, the urbanization process is more likely to be a dynamic and flexible one, rather than precisely predicted, whose unpredictability is reinforced by port construction plan's vague definition about phasing and adjacent areas. Could there be a way to convert site's innate incompatibility with massive development, even steer towards synergy to encourage and generate a different kind of urbanism? Furthermore, what is the right attitude towards the two gigantic infrastructure neighbors? How to engage in an equal and productive conversation without being engulfed? What about Fiumicino? Does urbanization imply a necessary end, turning into some obscure suburb without identity, especially like those near vast transportation infrastructures, embodied as a patchwork of motels, parking lots and low-quality residential zone? How can Fiumicino obtain its identity through all these changes? The project strives to answer the foregoing questions and brings them into synergy, by recognizing the structural force of landscape in the transformation process that manages to construct an environmental network on a territorial scale in which every intervention can be placed as a part of a unique identity system, so that the flexible scaffold can have the strength to sustain the transformation and synchronize it with the natural characteristics of the site. The site's strategic location offers opportunity to construct a flexible system capable of interacting with the unpredictability within landscape framework. Solution / DesignThe project consists of two directions functioning on corresponding scales. On territorial scale, it proposes to construct a topography-based "landscape infrastructure" to respond to multiple challenges and essentially prepare the ground for future development, encouraging gradual unfolding of different urban scenarios. On human scale, it draws inspirations from historical precedents of Roman city planning and Renaissance Italian villas, bringing a visual control system to the design as a new way to guarantee urban life quality within unpredictable and dynamic urban conditions. The overarching concept of the design is to build topography as emergency flood container and daily rainwater collecting corridor, dividing future urban parcels, compressing substrate soil for development, functioning as ecological corridor at regional scale. The overlaying of visual control network onto the topography determines anchor points, which are connected via paths, take on different functions and become nodes in urban life. By bridging the gaps between two different scales, the proposal offers solid ground inviting different urbanization to happen while maintaining considerations for human-scale urban experience.On Territorial scale, materials from port construction and in-site cut are utilized to build the topography, which are shaped following water flow logic based on two scenarios, emergency flood scenario and daily rainwater scenario. Generation of topography is guided by: 1. identifying water body outside the site as future outlet; 2. defining wetland or collecting pond adjacent to such outlets, as topographical low points; 3. inserting collecting corridors into existing urban fabric, to activate open spaces; 4. creating corridors connecting existing urban fabric and new development by sloping towards low points. Thus the corridors naturally demarcate parcels, inside which ground is built up and substrate soil is compressed, eventually becoming suitable for development. This landscape infrastructure accommodates flexible utilization patterns, in terms of both different scenarios and varied water volumes, generating rich gradients of interaction between fixed ground and dynamic natural forces. On human scale, visual control axes are determined based on analyzing existing urban structure by reading its visual implications, generated by following main streets, connecting open spaces and town center. Viewing infrastructure as potential spatial experience anchor point provides new possibility to colonize the site following the same logic but with renewed elements. By combining these two sets of axes, control lines of visual connection for future development could be established. Visual anchor points' locations are further defined where either multiple visual axes intersect with each other, or visual axes intersect with topographical ridges. Those visual anchor points are materialized as open spaces within the topography. Connected by pedestrian and bicycle path, this line and node system forms the foundation of a linear park, transforming this function-based topography into urban amenity, accommodating multiple needs. Function of each open space is determined by its relative location regarding future development and topography. For instance, some may serve as entrances from future community to the park; others may serve as overlook terraces, while their functions and spatial experiences are highly flexible, open to changing situations in the future. Given the fact that the site and adjacent areas have abundant archaeological relics, it is proposed to incorporate outdoor exhibition into the open space experience, infusing a unique community identity. The design's features, including its orientation and response to big-scale infrastructures, openness to varying water levels and flood, provide the possibility to juxtapose ancient relics with infrastructure, flood and everyday life. This kind of renewed juxtaposition serves as starting point of the design, as well as the foundation of community's identity. Additional Project CreditsHarvard University Graduate School of Design Department of Culture of the Italian GovernmentSpecial thanks to Arch. Daniela Sandroni, Arch. Piero Aebischer, Arch. Stefania Cancellieri.University of Rome, Architecture School Valle GiuliaSpecial thanks to Professor Pier Paolo Balbo, Professor Francesco Rossi, Professor Lucio Carbonara, Professor Pier Ostilio Rossi, Professor Carlo Valorani, Professor Stefan Tischer.
Port Transportation Mapping Research: to gain a comprehensive understanding of the full implications of Fiumicino’s proposed commercial port, the projects starts with series of mappings on various scales and different focuses. These three maps examine cargo transportation on different scales.港口运输图研究：对Fiumicino商业门户的全面影响获得全面认识，各系列地图有不同的尺度和侧重点。这三个地图研究不同规模的货物运输。
Port Transportation Mapping Research: three maps looking at passenger traffic (ferries and cruise ships) on various scales. With a strong emphasis on handling cruise ship flow, the new port will bring renewed development interest to Fiumicino, resulting in its inevitable urbanization.三个地图从不同的规模认知渡轮和游船的客流，新的口岸必定将人们吸引至Fiumicino，城市化无不可避免。
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