android 标准蓝牙开发与蓝牙低功耗开发

2017-01-14 10:45:45来源:http://www.jianshu.com/p/de7fc57a7c53作者:hansheng人点击

第七城市
做蓝牙开发,先认识几个蓝牙的几个要点:

1、UUID:通用唯一识别码(英语:Universally Unique Identifier,简称UUID)


2、GATT:通用属性描述Generic Attribute Profile-GATT是为通过BLE链接发送和接收的短数据(属性值)而做的一个规范描述。 属性协议Attribute Protocol-GATT是建立在ATT之上的。它们一起指的是GATT/ATT(类似于TCP/IP的概念)。 ATT对在BLE设备上的运行进行优化。为此,它使用尽可能少的字节。每个属性都是由一个全局唯一标识符唯一地标识(UUID),这是一个字符串ID, 一个标准的128位格式,用于唯一标识信息。这里的attributes(属性)的传输被ATT格式化为characteristics和services。 特征[Characteristic]-一个characteristic包含一个唯一的值和0到n个描述数来描述characteristic的值。一个characteristic可以被看作一个数据类型,或者一个类。 描述符[Descriptor]-Descriptor被定义为一些属性用来描述一个characteristic的值。例如,一个描述符可能特指为一个只有人才可以读的描述, characteristic的值的一个可接受的范围。或者是characteristic的一个测量单元


标准蓝牙开发流程

1、开启权限
2、开启蓝牙
3、蓝牙搜寻广播
4、连接与配对


简要介绍Bluetooth开发要使用的类

1、BluetoothAdapter 蓝牙适配器,可判断蓝牙设备是否可用等功能
有几个重要的方法:
cancelDiscovery() ,取消搜索过程,在进行蓝牙设备搜索时,如果调用该方法会停止搜索。(搜索过程会持续12秒)
disable()关闭蓝牙,也就是我们常说的禁用蓝牙。
enable()打开蓝牙,这个方法打开蓝牙但不会弹出提示,正常流程操作下,我们会让系统提示用户是否打开蓝牙设备。如下两行代码可轻松搞定。


2.BluetoothDevice看名字就知道,这个类描述了一个蓝牙设备createRfcommSocketToServiceRecord(UUIDuuid)根据UUID创建并返回一个BluetoothSocket 这个方法也是我们获取BluetoothDevice的目的——创建BluetoothSocket 这个类其他的方法,如getAddress(),getName(),同BluetoothAdapter* 这个类有几个隐藏方法,涉及到蓝牙的自动配对,setPin,createBond,cancelPairingUserInput,等方法(需要通过java的反射,调用这几个隐藏方法)


下面通过案例说明:


public class ClientThread extends Thread {
private BluetoothSocket socket;
private BluetoothDevice device;
private Context context;
public ClientThread(BluetoothDevice device, Context context) {
this.socket = socket;
this.context= context;
}
@Override
public void run() {
try {
socket=device.createRfcommSocketToServiceRecord(UUID.fromString("00001101-0000-1000-8000-00805F9B34FB"));
socket.connect();
if(socket==null){
Toast.makeText(context, "本设备没有蓝牙模块", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
return;
}
System.out.println("hasnheng client");
while (true){
System.out.println("hansheng client is in");
String msg = "hello everybody I am client";
OutputStream os = socket.getOutputStream();
os.write(msg.getBytes());
}
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
}
public class ServerThread extends Thread {

public BluetoothServerSocket serverSocket;
private BluetoothAdapter bluetoothAdapter;
private BluetoothSocket socket;
private Context context;
public ServerThread(BluetoothAdapter bluetoothAdapter, Context context) {
this.bluetoothAdapter = bluetoothAdapter;
this.context = context;
}
@Override
public void run() {
try {
serverSocket=bluetoothAdapter.listenUsingInsecureRfcommWithServiceRecord(Bluetoothprotocol.PROTOCOL_SCHEME_RFCOMM,
UUID.fromString("00001101-0000-1000-8000-00805F9B34FB"));
socket=serverSocket.accept();
byte[] buffer=new byte[1024];
int bytes=1;
InputStream inputStream=null;
inputStream=socket.getInputStream();
while (true){
if((bytes=inputStream.read(buffer))>0){
byte[] buf=new byte[bytes];
for(int i=0;i<bytes;i++){
buf[i]=buffer[i];
}
String s = new String(buf);
System.out.println(s+"hansheng server is in");
}
}
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
}
public class BluetoothActivity1 extends AppCompatActivity {
public Button searchBtn;//搜索蓝牙设备
public Button exitBtn;//退出应用
public Button discoverBtn;//设置可被发现
public ToggleButton openBtn;//开关蓝牙设备
public Button serverbtn;
public ListView listView;//蓝牙设备清单
public ArrayAdapter<String> adapter;
public ArrayList<String> list = new ArrayList<String>();
private BluetoothAdapter bluetoothAdapter = BluetoothAdapter.getDefaultAdapter();
Set<BluetoothDevice> bondDevices;
public Context context;
@Override
protected void onCreate(@Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
setContentView(R.layout.blue_layoutmain);
searchBtn = (Button) findViewById(R.id.btnSearch);
exitBtn = (Button) findViewById(R.id.btnExit);
discoverBtn = (Button) findViewById(R.id.btnDis);
openBtn = (ToggleButton) findViewById(R.id.tbtnSwitch);
serverbtn = (Button) findViewById(R.id.btnserver);
listView = (ListView) findViewById(R.id.lvDevices);
context = getApplicationContext();
adapter = new ArrayAdapter<String>(this, android.R.layout.simple_list_item_1, list);
listView.setAdapter(adapter);
openBtn.setChecked(false);
//注册广播接收信号
IntentFilter intent = new IntentFilter();
intent.addAction(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND);// 用BroadcastReceiver来取得搜索结果
intent.addAction(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_SCAN_MODE_CHANGED); //每当扫描模式变化的时候,应用程序可以为通过ACTION_SCAN_MODE_CHANGED值来监听全局的消息通知。比如,当设备停止被搜寻以后,该消息可以被系统通知给应用程序。
intent.addAction(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_STATE_CHANGED); //每当蓝牙模块被打开或者关闭,应用程序可以为通过ACTION_STATE_CHANGED值来监听全局的消息通知。
registerReceiver(searchReceiver, intent);
searchBtn.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
@Override
public void onClick(View v) {
if (bluetoothAdapter.isDiscovering()) {
bluetoothAdapter.cancelDiscovery();
}
list.clear();
bondDevices = bluetoothAdapter.getBondedDevices();
for (BluetoothDevice device : bondDevices) {
String str = " 已配对完成 " + device.getName() + " " + device.getAddress();
list.add(str);
adapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
}
bluetoothAdapter.startDiscovery();
}
});
//退出应用
exitBtn.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
@Override
public void onClick(View v) {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
BluetoothActivity1.this.finish();
}
});
//设置蓝牙设备可发现
discoverBtn.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
@Override
public void onClick(View v) {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
Intent discoverIntent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_DISCOVERABLE);
discoverIntent.putExtra(BluetoothAdapter.EXTRA_DISCOVERABLE_DURATION, 300);
startActivity(discoverIntent);
}
});
//开关蓝牙设备
openBtn.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
@Override
public void onClick(View v) {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
if(openBtn.isChecked() == true){
bluetoothAdapter.disable();
}
else if(openBtn.isChecked() == false){
bluetoothAdapter.enable();
}
}
});
//作为服务端开启
serverbtn.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
@Override
public void onClick(View v) {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
ServerThread serverThread = new ServerThread(bluetoothAdapter, context);
Toast.makeText(context, "server 端启动", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
serverThread.start();
}
});
listView.setOnItemClickListener(new ItemClickListener());
}
@Override
protected void onDestroy() {
super.onDestroy();
if (searchReceiver != null) {
unregisterReceiver(searchReceiver);
}
}
@Override
protected void onStart() {
super.onStart();
// If BT is not on, request that it be enabled.
if (bluetoothAdapter == null) {
Toast.makeText(context, "蓝牙设备不可用", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
}
if (!bluetoothAdapter.isEnabled()) {
Intent enableIntent = new Intent(
BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_ENABLE);
startActivityForResult(enableIntent, 3);
}
}
private final BroadcastReceiver searchReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {
@Override
public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
String action = intent.getAction();
BluetoothDevice device = null;
if (BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND.equals(action)) {
device = intent.getParcelableExtra(BluetoothDevice.EXTRA_DEVICE);
if (device.getBondState() == BluetoothDevice.BOND_BONDED) {
Toast.makeText(context, device.getName() + "", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
String str = " 未配对完成 " + device.getName() + " " + device.getAddress();
if (list.indexOf(str) == -1)// 防止重复添加
list.add(str);
}
adapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
}
}
};
private class ItemClickListener implements AdapterView.OnItemClickListener {
@Override
public void onItemClick(AdapterView<?> parent, View view, int position, long id) {
if(bluetoothAdapter.isDiscovering())
bluetoothAdapter.cancelDiscovery();
String str = list.get(position);
String address = str.substring(str.length() - 17);
BluetoothDevice btDev = bluetoothAdapter.getRemoteDevice(address);
ClientThread clientThread = new ClientThread(btDev, context);
clientThread.start();
}
}
}

蓝牙低功耗开发
区别:

标准蓝牙的的开发和BLE不同。标准蓝牙连接里有两个角色一个是客户端一个是服务器,当客户端搜索到蓝牙服务器后并与之配对后, 才能通过UUID(这个是唯一的,服务器端必须与客户端一致)建立socket,然后使用流像文件读写和网络通信那样传输数据就行了。


在BLE里,变成了中心设备(central)和外围设备(peripheral),中心设备就是你的手机,外围设备就是智能手环一类的东西。开发BLE的应用都得遵守Generic Attribute Profile (GATT),一个BLE蓝牙设备包含多个service,每个service 又包含多个characteristic。每个characteristic有一个value和多个descriptor,通过characteristic中心设备与外围设备进行通信。 descriptor顾名思义,包含了BLE设备的一些信息。不同service、characteristic和descriptor都有各自己唯一的UUID。想要跟BLE设备通信, 首先通过UUID获取目标服务,然后再通过UUID获取characteristic,charateristic起着载体的作用,通过writeCharacteristic()和*readCharacteristic(),可以写入和读出信息。每个characteristic都有一些自己的属性,其中在property里,说明了该characteristic的属性 ,例如READ|WRITE|WRITE_NO_RESPONSE|NOTIFY。


当连接上BLE设备后,调用discoveryServices()发现服务,通过SERVICE_UUID获取目标service,如果service不为空,* 再通过CHARACTERISTIC_UUID获取characteristic,借助characteristic写入指定值与BLE设备进行通信。


这里要注意的是characteristic接收的是一个byte数组, 而且读写的方法都是异步的。调用bluetoothGatt.readCharacteristic(characteristic)可读取BLE设备返回的值。bluetoothGatt的writeCharacteristic()方法会触发BluetoothGattCallback里的onCharacteristicWrite(),相应的,bluetoothGatt的readCharacteristic()方法会触发onCharacteristicRead()。对中心设备与外围设备的传输数据的处理发生在onCharacteristicChanged()里,当characteristic写入了正确的数值后,会激活BLE设备,不时地返回数据,当不知道BLE设备的service和characteristic的对应的UUID时,可以在回调函数里的onServicesDiscovered()方法里, 通过BluetoothGatt的getServices()获得该设备所有的service,然后再调用service的getUuid()得到其UUID,同理通过service的getCharacteristics()可以得到每个service所有的characteristic和其UUID。然后一个个不厌其烦的尝试,找到正确的service和characteristic 接收数据:


现在,本地的代理组件知道了传感器所提供的服务,我们可以开始使用这些服务了。为了使用它们,我们首先需要获得服务,然后是该服务所包含的特征,最后是特征的描述符。


一个GATT服务表现为一个BluetoothGattService 对象,我们需要通过适当的UUID从 BluetoothGatt 实例中获得;
一个GATT特征表示为一个 BluetoothGattCharacteristic 对象,我们可以通过适当的UUID从BluetoothGattService 中得到;
一个GATT描述符表现为一个 BluetoothGattDescriptor 对象,我们可以通过适当的UUID从BluetoothGattCharacteristic对象中获得:


蓝牙低功耗开发步骤:
1、使用BluetoothAdapter.startLeScan来扫描低功耗蓝牙设备
2、在扫描到设备的回调函数中会得到BluetoothDevice对象,并使用BluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan停止扫描
3、使用BluetoothDevice.connectGatt来获取到BluetoothGatt对象
4、执行BluetoothGatt.discoverServices,这个方法是异步操作,在回调函数onServicesDiscovered中得到status, 通过判断status是否等于BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS来判断查找Service是否成功
5、如果成功了,则通过BluetoothGatt.getService来获取BluetoothGattService
6、接着通过BluetoothGattService.getCharacteristic获取BluetoothGattCharacteristic
7、然后通过BluetoothGattCharacteristic.getDescriptor获取BluetoothGattDescriptor


通过案例:


public class DeviceScanActivity extends ListActivity {
private LeDeviceListAdapter mLeDeviceListAdapter;
private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
private boolean mScanning;
private Handler mHandler;
private static final int REQUEST_ENABLE_BT = 1;
// Stops scanning after 10 seconds.
private static final long SCAN_PERIOD = 10000;
@Override
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
getActionBar().setTitle(R.string.title_devices);
mHandler = new Handler();
// Use this check to determine whether BLE is supported on the device. Then you can
// selectively disable BLE-related features.
if (!getPackageManager().hasSystemFeature(PackageManager.FEATURE_BLUETOOTH_LE)) {
Toast.makeText(this, R.string.ble_not_supported, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
finish();
}
// Initializes a Bluetooth adapter. For API level 18 and above, get a reference to
// BluetoothAdapter through BluetoothManager.
final BluetoothManager bluetoothManager =
(BluetoothManager) getSystemService(Context.BLUETOOTH_SERVICE);
mBluetoothAdapter = bluetoothManager.getAdapter();
// Checks if Bluetooth is supported on the device.
if (mBluetoothAdapter == null) {
Toast.makeText(this, R.string.error_bluetooth_not_supported, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
finish();
return;
}
}
@Override
public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.main, menu);
if (!mScanning) {
menu.findItem(R.id.menu_stop).setVisible(false);
menu.findItem(R.id.menu_scan).setVisible(true);
menu.findItem(R.id.menu_refresh).setActionView(null);
} else {
menu.findItem(R.id.menu_stop).setVisible(true);
menu.findItem(R.id.menu_scan).setVisible(false);
menu.findItem(R.id.menu_refresh).setActionView(
R.layout.actionbar_indeterminate_progress);
}
return true;
}
@Override
public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
switch (item.getItemId()) {
case R.id.menu_scan:
mLeDeviceListAdapter.clear();
scanLeDevice(true);
break;
case R.id.menu_stop:
scanLeDevice(false);
break;
}
return true;
}
@Override
protected void onResume() {
super.onResume();
// Ensures Bluetooth is enabled on the device. If Bluetooth is not currently enabled,
// fire an intent to display a dialog asking the user to grant permission to enable it.
if (!mBluetoothAdapter.isEnabled()) {
if (!mBluetoothAdapter.isEnabled()) {
Intent enableBtIntent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_ENABLE);
startActivityForResult(enableBtIntent, REQUEST_ENABLE_BT);
}
}
// Initializes list view adapter.
mLeDeviceListAdapter = new LeDeviceListAdapter();
setListAdapter(mLeDeviceListAdapter);
scanLeDevice(true);
}
@Override
protected void onActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data) {
// User chose not to enable Bluetooth.
if (requestCode == REQUEST_ENABLE_BT && resultCode == Activity.RESULT_CANCELED) {
finish();
return;
}
super.onActivityResult(requestCode, resultCode, data);
}
@Override
protected void onPause() {
super.onPause();
scanLeDevice(false);
mLeDeviceListAdapter.clear();
}
@Override
protected void onListItemClick(ListView l, View v, int position, long id) {
final BluetoothDevice device = mLeDeviceListAdapter.getDevice(position);
if (device == null) return;
final Intent intent = new Intent(this, DeviceControlActivity.class);
intent.putExtra(DeviceControlActivity.EXTRAS_DEVICE_NAME, device.getName());
intent.putExtra(DeviceControlActivity.EXTRAS_DEVICE_ADDRESS, device.getAddress());
if (mScanning) {
mBluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
mScanning = false;
}
startActivity(intent);
}
// 如果只是要扫描到特定类型的设备,则使用接口 startLeScan(UUID[], BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback),通过UUID来查找设备。
private void scanLeDevice(final boolean enable) {
if (enable) {
// Stops scanning after a pre-defined scan period.
mHandler.postDelayed(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
mScanning = false;
mBluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
invalidateOptionsMenu();
}
}, SCAN_PERIOD);
mScanning = true;
mBluetoothAdapter.startLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
} else {
mScanning = false;
mBluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
}
invalidateOptionsMenu();
}
// Adapter for holding devices found through scanning.
private class LeDeviceListAdapter extends BaseAdapter {
private ArrayList<BluetoothDevice> mLeDevices;
private LayoutInflater mInflator;
public LeDeviceListAdapter() {
super();
mLeDevices = new ArrayList<BluetoothDevice>();
mInflator = DeviceScanActivity.this.getLayoutInflater();
}
public void addDevice(BluetoothDevice device) {
if (!mLeDevices.contains(device)) {
mLeDevices.add(device);
}
}
public BluetoothDevice getDevice(int position) {
return mLeDevices.get(position);
}
public void clear() {
mLeDevices.clear();
}
@Override
public int getCount() {
return mLeDevices.size();
}
@Override
public Object getItem(int i) {
return mLeDevices.get(i);
}
@Override
public long getItemId(int i) {
return i;
}
@Override
public View getView(int i, View view, ViewGroup viewGroup) {
ViewHolder viewHolder;
// General ListView optimization code.
if (view == null) {
view = mInflator.inflate(R.layout.listitem_device, null);
viewHolder = new ViewHolder();
viewHolder.deviceAddress = (TextView) view.findViewById(R.id.device_address);
viewHolder.deviceName = (TextView) view.findViewById(R.id.device_name);
view.setTag(viewHolder);
} else {
viewHolder = (ViewHolder) view.getTag();
}
BluetoothDevice device = mLeDevices.get(i);
final String deviceName = device.getName();
if (deviceName != null && deviceName.length() > 0)
viewHolder.deviceName.setText(deviceName);
else
viewHolder.deviceName.setText(R.string.unknown_device);
viewHolder.deviceAddress.setText(device.getAddress());
return view;
}
}
// Device scan callback.
private BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback mLeScanCallback =
new BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback() {
@Override
public void onLeScan(final BluetoothDevice device, int rssi, byte[] scanRecord) {
runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
mLeDeviceListAdapter.addDevice(device);
mLeDeviceListAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
}
});
}
};
static class ViewHolder {
TextView deviceName;
TextView deviceAddress;
}
}
public class DeviceControlActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

private final static String TAG = DeviceControlActivity.class.getSimpleName();
public static final String EXTRAS_DEVICE_NAME = "DEVICE_NAME";
public static final String EXTRAS_DEVICE_ADDRESS = "DEVICE_ADDRESS";
private TextView mConnectionState;
private TextView mDataField;
private String mDeviceName;
private String mDeviceAddress;
private ExpandableListView mGattServicesList;
private BluetoothLeService mBluetoothLeService;
private ArrayList<ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>> mGattCharacteristics =
new ArrayList<ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>>();
private boolean mConnected = false;
private BluetoothGattCharacteristic mNotifyCharacteristic;
private final String LIST_NAME = "NAME";
private final String LIST_UUID = "UUID";
// Code to manage Service lifecycle.
private final ServiceConnection mServiceConnection = new ServiceConnection() {
@Override
public void onServiceConnected(ComponentName componentName, IBinder service) {
mBluetoothLeService = ((BluetoothLeService.LocalBinder) service).getService();
if (!mBluetoothLeService.initialize()) {
Log.e(TAG, "Unable to initialize Bluetooth");
finish();
}
// Automatically connects to the device upon successful start-up initialization.
mBluetoothLeService.connect(mDeviceAddress);
}
@Override
public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName componentName) {
mBluetoothLeService = null;
}
};
// Handles various events fired by the Service.
// ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED: connected to a GATT server.
// ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED: disconnected from a GATT server.
// ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED: discovered GATT services.
// ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE: received data from the device. This can be a result of read
// or notification operations.
private final BroadcastReceiver mGattUpdateReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {
@Override
public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
final String action = intent.getAction();
if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED.equals(action)) {
mConnected = true;
updateConnectionState(R.string.connected);
invalidateOptionsMenu();
} else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED.equals(action)) {
mConnected = false;
updateConnectionState(R.string.disconnected);
invalidateOptionsMenu();
clearUI();
} else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED.equals(action)) {
// Show all the supported services and characteristics on the user interface.
displayGattServices(mBluetoothLeService.getSupportedGattServices());
} else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE.equals(action)) {
displayData(intent.getStringExtra(BluetoothLeService.EXTRA_DATA));
}
}
};
// If a given GATT characteristic is selected, check for supported features. This sample
// demonstrates 'Read' and 'Notify' features. See
// http://d.android.com/reference/android/bluetooth/BluetoothGatt.html for the complete
// list of supported characteristic features.
private final ExpandableListView.OnChildClickListener servicesListClickListner =
new ExpandableListView.OnChildClickListener() {
@Override
public boolean onChildClick(ExpandableListView parent, View v, int groupPosition,
int childPosition, long id) {
if (mGattCharacteristics != null) {
final BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic =
mGattCharacteristics.get(groupPosition).get(childPosition);
final int charaProp = characteristic.getProperties();
if ((charaProp | BluetoothGattCharacteristic.PROPERTY_READ) > 0) {
// If there is an active notification on a characteristic, clear
// it first so it doesn't update the data field on the user interface.
if (mNotifyCharacteristic != null) {
mBluetoothLeService.setCharacteristicNotification(
mNotifyCharacteristic, false);
mNotifyCharacteristic = null;
}
mBluetoothLeService.readCharacteristic(characteristic);
}
if ((charaProp | BluetoothGattCharacteristic.PROPERTY_NOTIFY) > 0) {
mNotifyCharacteristic = characteristic;
mBluetoothLeService.setCharacteristicNotification(
characteristic, true);
}
return true;
}
return false;
}
};
private void clearUI() {
mGattServicesList.setAdapter((SimpleExpandableListAdapter) null);
mDataField.setText(R.string.no_data);
}
@Override
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
setContentView(R.layout.gatt_services_characteristics);
final Intent intent = getIntent();
mDeviceName = intent.getStringExtra(EXTRAS_DEVICE_NAME);
mDeviceAddress = intent.getStringExtra(EXTRAS_DEVICE_ADDRESS);
// Sets up UI references.
((TextView) findViewById(R.id.device_address)).setText(mDeviceAddress);
mGattServicesList = (ExpandableListView) findViewById(R.id.gatt_services_list);
mGattServicesList.setOnChildClickListener(servicesListClickListner);
mConnectionState = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.connection_state);
mDataField = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.data_value);
// getActionBar().setTitle(mDeviceName);
// getActionBar().setDisplayHomeAsUpEnabled(true);
Intent gattServiceIntent = new Intent(this, BluetoothLeService.class);
bindService(gattServiceIntent, mServiceConnection, BIND_AUTO_CREATE);
}
@Override
protected void onResume() {
super.onResume();
registerReceiver(mGattUpdateReceiver, makeGattUpdateIntentFilter());
if (mBluetoothLeService != null) {
final boolean result = mBluetoothLeService.connect(mDeviceAddress);
Log.d(TAG, "Connect request result=" + result);
}
}
@Override
protected void onPause() {
super.onPause();
unregisterReceiver(mGattUpdateReceiver);
}
@Override
protected void onDestroy() {
super.onDestroy();
unbindService(mServiceConnection);
mBluetoothLeService = null;
}
@Override
public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.gatt_services, menu);
if (mConnected) {
menu.findItem(R.id.menu_connect).setVisible(false);
menu.findItem(R.id.menu_disconnect).setVisible(true);
} else {
menu.findItem(R.id.menu_connect).setVisible(true);
menu.findItem(R.id.menu_disconnect).setVisible(false);
}
return true;
}
@Override
public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
switch(item.getItemId()) {
case R.id.menu_connect:
mBluetoothLeService.connect(mDeviceAddress);
return true;
case R.id.menu_disconnect:
mBluetoothLeService.disconnect();
return true;
case android.R.id.home:
onBackPressed();
return true;
}
return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
}
private void updateConnectionState(final int resourceId) {
runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
mConnectionState.setText(resourceId);
}
});
}
private void displayData(String data) {
if (data != null) {
mDataField.setText(data);
}
}
// Demonstrates how to iterate through the supported GATT Services/Characteristics.
// In this sample, we populate the data structure that is bound to the ExpandableListView
// on the UI.
private void displayGattServices(List<BluetoothGattService> gattServices) {
if (gattServices == null) return;
String uuid = null;
String unknownServiceString = getResources().getString(R.string.unknown_service);
String unknownCharaString = getResources().getString(R.string.unknown_characteristic);
ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattServiceData = new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>> gattCharacteristicData
= new ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>>();
mGattCharacteristics = new ArrayList<ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>>();
// Loops through available GATT Services.
for (BluetoothGattService gattService : gattServices) {
HashMap<String, String> currentServiceData = new HashMap<String, String>();
uuid = gattService.getUuid().toString();
currentServiceData.put(
LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.lookup(uuid, unknownServiceString));
currentServiceData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
gattServiceData.add(currentServiceData);
ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattCharacteristicGroupData =
new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
List<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> gattCharacteristics =
gattService.getCharacteristics();
ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> charas =
new ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>();
// Loops through available Characteristics.
for (BluetoothGattCharacteristic gattCharacteristic : gattCharacteristics) {
charas.add(gattCharacteristic);
HashMap<String, String> currentCharaData = new HashMap<String, String>();
uuid = gattCharacteristic.getUuid().toString();
currentCharaData.put(
LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.lookup(uuid, unknownCharaString));
currentCharaData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
gattCharacteristicGroupData.add(currentCharaData);
}
mGattCharacteristics.add(charas);
gattCharacteristicData.add(gattCharacteristicGroupData);
}
SimpleExpandableListAdapter gattServiceAdapter = new SimpleExpandableListAdapter(
this,
gattServiceData,
android.R.layout.simple_expandable_list_item_2,
new String[] {LIST_NAME, LIST_UUID},
new int[] { android.R.id.text1, android.R.id.text2 },
gattCharacteristicData,
android.R.layout.simple_expandable_list_item_2,
new String[] {LIST_NAME, LIST_UUID},
new int[] { android.R.id.text1, android.R.id.text2 }
);
mGattServicesList.setAdapter(gattServiceAdapter);
}
private static IntentFilter makeGattUpdateIntentFilter() {
final IntentFilter intentFilter = new IntentFilter();
intentFilter.addAction(BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED);
intentFilter.addAction(BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED);
intentFilter.addAction(BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED);
intentFilter.addAction(BluetoothLeService.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE);
return intentFilter;
}
}
public class BluetoothLeService extends Service {
private final static String TAG = BluetoothLeService.class.getSimpleName();
private BluetoothManager mBluetoothManager;
private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
private String mBluetoothDeviceAddress;
private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
private int mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;
private static final int STATE_DISCONNECTED = 0;
private static final int STATE_CONNECTING = 1;
private static final int STATE_CONNECTED = 2;
public final static String ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED =
"com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED";
public final static String ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED =
"com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED";
public final static String ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED =
"com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED";
public final static String ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE =
"com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE";
public final static String EXTRA_DATA =
"com.example.bluetooth.le.EXTRA_DATA";
public final static UUID UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT =
UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT);
// Implements callback methods for GATT events that the app cares about. For example,
// connection change and services discovered.
private final BluetoothGattCallback mGattCallback = new BluetoothGattCallback() {
@Override
public void onConnectionStateChange(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status, int newState) {
String intentAction;
if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_CONNECTED) {
intentAction = ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED;
mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTED;
broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
Log.i(TAG, "Connected to GATT server.");
// Attempts to discover services after successful connection.
Log.i(TAG, "Attempting to start service discovery:" +
mBluetoothGatt.discoverServices());
} else if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_DISCONNECTED) {
intentAction = ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED;
mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;
Log.i(TAG, "Disconnected from GATT server.");
broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
}
}
@Override
public void onServicesDiscovered(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status) {
if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
broadcastUpdate(ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED);
} else {
Log.w(TAG, "onServicesDiscovered received: " + status);
}
}
@Override
public void onCharacteristicRead(BluetoothGatt gatt,
BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
int status) {
if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
}
}
@Override
public void onCharacteristicChanged(BluetoothGatt gatt,
BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
}
};
private void broadcastUpdate(final String action) {
final Intent intent = new Intent(action);
sendBroadcast(intent);
}
private void broadcastUpdate(final String action,
final BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
final Intent intent = new Intent(action);
// This is special handling for the Heart Rate Measurement profile. Data parsing is
// carried out as per profile specifications:
// http://developer.bluetooth.org/gatt/characteristics/Pages/CharacteristicViewer.aspx?u=org.bluetooth.characteristic.heart_rate_measurement.xml
if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
int flag = characteristic.getProperties();
int format = -1;
if ((flag & 0x01) != 0) {
format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT16;
Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT16.");
} else {
format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT8;
Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT8.");
}
final int heartRate = characteristic.getIntValue(format, 1);
Log.d(TAG, String.format("Received heart rate: %d", heartRate));
intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, String.valueOf(heartRate));
} else {
// For all other profiles, writes the data formatted in HEX.
final byte[] data = characteristic.getValue();
if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
final StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder(data.length);
for (byte byteChar : data)
stringBuilder.append(String.format("%02X ", byteChar));
intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, new String(data) + "/n" + stringBuilder.toString());
}
}
sendBroadcast(intent);
}
public class LocalBinder extends Binder {
BluetoothLeService getService() {
return BluetoothLeService.this;
}
}
@Override
public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
return mBinder;
}
@Override
public boolean onUnbind(Intent intent) {
// After using a given device, you should make sure that BluetoothGatt.close() is called
// such that resources are cleaned up properly. In this particular example, close() is
// invoked when the UI is disconnected from the Service.
close();
return super.onUnbind(intent);
}
private final IBinder mBinder = new LocalBinder();
/**
* Initializes a reference to the local Bluetooth adapter.
*
* @return Return true if the initialization is successful.
*/
public boolean initialize() {
// For API level 18 and above, get a reference to BluetoothAdapter through
// BluetoothManager.
if (mBluetoothManager == null) {
mBluetoothManager = (BluetoothManager) getSystemService(Context.BLUETOOTH_SERVICE);
if (mBluetoothManager == null) {
Log.e(TAG, "Unable to initialize BluetoothManager.");
return false;
}
}
mBluetoothAdapter = mBluetoothManager.getAdapter();
if (mBluetoothAdapter == null) {
Log.e(TAG, "Unable to obtain a BluetoothAdapter.");
return false;
}
return true;
}
/**
* Connects to the GATT server hosted on the Bluetooth LE device.
*
* @param address The device address of the destination device.
* @return Return true if the connection is initiated successfully. The connection result
* is reported asynchronously through the
* {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onConnectionStateChange(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, int, int)}
* callback.
*/
public boolean connect(final String address) {
if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || address == null) {
Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized or unspecified address.");
return false;
}
// Previously connected device. Try to reconnect.
if (mBluetoothDeviceAddress != null && address.equals(mBluetoothDeviceAddress)
&& mBluetoothGatt != null) {
Log.d(TAG, "Trying to use an existing mBluetoothGatt for connection.");
if (mBluetoothGatt.connect()) {
mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTING;
return true;
} else {
return false;
}
}
final BluetoothDevice device = mBluetoothAdapter.getRemoteDevice(address);
if (device == null) {
Log.w(TAG, "Device not found. Unable to connect.");
return false;
}
// We want to directly connect to the device, so we are setting the autoConnect
// parameter to false.
mBluetoothGatt = device.connectGatt(this, false, mGattCallback);
Log.d(TAG, "Trying to create a new connection.");
mBluetoothDeviceAddress = address;
mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTING;
return true;
}
/**
* Disconnects an existing connection or cancel a pending connection. The disconnection result
* is reported asynchronously through the
* {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onConnectionStateChange(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, int, int)}
* callback.
*/
public void disconnect() {
if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
return;
}
mBluetoothGatt.disconnect();
}
/**
* After using a given BLE device, the app must call this method to ensure resources are
* released properly.
*/
public void close() {
if (mBluetoothGatt == null) {
return;
}
mBluetoothGatt.close();
mBluetoothGatt = null;
}
/**
* Request a read on a given {@code BluetoothGattCharacteristic}. The read result is reported
* asynchronously through the {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onCharacteristicRead(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattCharacteristic, int)}
* callback.
*
* @param characteristic The characteristic to read from.
*/
public void readCharacteristic(BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
return;
}
mBluetoothGatt.readCharacteristic(characteristic);
}
/**
* Enables or disables notification on a give characteristic.
*
* @param characteristic Characteristic to act on.
* @param enabled If true, enable notification. False otherwise.
*/
public void setCharacteristicNotification(BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
boolean enabled) {
if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
return;
}
mBluetoothGatt.setCharacteristicNotification(characteristic, enabled);
// This is specific to Heart Rate Measurement.
if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor = characteristic.getDescriptor(
UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.CLIENT_CHARACTERISTIC_CONFIG));
descriptor.setValue(BluetoothGattDescriptor.ENABLE_NOTIFICATION_VALUE);
mBluetoothGatt.writeDescriptor(descriptor);
}
}
/**
* Retrieves a list of supported GATT services on the connected device. This should be
* invoked only after {@code BluetoothGatt#discoverServices()} completes successfully.
*
* @return A {@code List} of supported services.
*/
public List<BluetoothGattService> getSupportedGattServices() {
if (mBluetoothGatt == null) return null;
return mBluetoothGatt.getServices();
}
}

具体代码:
Bluetooth




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