# Python自学笔记——Matplotlib风羽自定义

2017-01-13 08:17:16来源:cnblogs.com作者:kallan人点击

【前言】对于气象专业的小学生来说，风场是预报重要的参考数据，我们所知的风羽有四种：短线代表风速2m/s，长线代表风速4m/s，空心三角代表风速20m/s，实心三角代表风速50m/s。而matplotlib的风羽只有短线、长线、三角三种，而这里的三角不分空心实心，但是可通过改变风羽颜色为白色使三角变为空心形状，虽然这三种可以自定义各自代表的风速，但是仍与我们的使用习惯不符，即使把三角设成20m/s，原本一个实心三角就能表示的50m/s的风在matplotlib中需要两个三角外加两条长线一条短线。为了迎合预报员的需求，我在研究了matplotlib的风场函数barbs()的源代码quiver.py文件后，对quiver.py做了适当的调整，使得matplotlib也有了空心三角和实心三角之分。

# 一、函数`barbs`的使用

``barb(X, Y, U, V,, **kw)``

X：风场数据X坐标
Y：风场数据Y坐标
U：风的水平方向分量
V：风的垂直方向分量

``'''Demonstration of wind barb plots'''import matplotlib.pyplot as pltimport numpy as npx = np.linspace(-5, 5, 5)X, Y = np.meshgrid(x, x)U, V = 12*X, 12*Ydata = [(-1.5, .5, -6, -6),(1, -1, -46, 46),(-3, -1, 11, -11),(1, 1.5, 80, 80),(0.5, 0.25, 25, 15),(-1.5, -0.5, -5, 40)]data = np.array(data, dtype=[('x', np.float32), ('y', np.float32), ('u', np.float32), ('v', np.float32)])# Default parameters, uniform gridax = plt.subplot(2, 2, 1)ax.barbs(X, Y, U, V)# Arbitrary set of vectors, make them longer and change the pivot point#(point around which they're rotated) to be the middleax = plt.subplot(2, 2, 2)ax.barbs(data['x'], data['y'], data['u'], data['v'], length=8, pivot='middle')# Showing colormapping with uniform grid. Fill the circle for an empty barb,# don't round the values, and change some of the size parametersax = plt.subplot(2, 2, 3)ax.barbs(X, Y, U, V, np.sqrt(U*U + V*V), fill_empty=True, rounding=False,sizes=dict(emptybarb=0.25, spacing=0.2, height=0.3))# Change colors as well as the increments for parts of the barbsax = plt.subplot(2, 2, 4)ax.barbs(data['x'], data['y'], data['u'], data['v'], flagcolor='r',barbcolor=['b', 'g'], barb_increments=dict(half=10, full=20, flag=100),flip_barb=True)plt.show()``

# 二、源代码解读

## 1.`class Barbs()`

``class Barbs(mcollections.PolyCollection):   @docstring.interpd   def __init__(self, ax, *args, **kw):            '...'   def _find_tails(self, mag, rounding=True, half=5, full=10, flag=50):        '...'   def _make_barbs(self, u, v, nflags, nbarbs, half_barb, empty_flag, length,pivot, sizes, fill_empty, flip):        '...'   def set_UVC(self, U, V, C=None):        '...'   def set_offsets(self, xy):        '...'    ``
• 通过读源代码可知类Barbs有五个方法分别为`__init__``_find_tails``_make_barbs``set_UVC``set_offsets`

## 2.`__init__`

``    @docstring.interpd    def __init__(self, ax, *args, **kw):        """        The constructor takes one required argument, an Axes        instance, followed by the args and kwargs described        by the following pylab interface documentation:        %(barbs_doc)s        """        self._pivot = kw.pop('pivot', 'tip')        self._length = kw.pop('length', 7)        barbcolor = kw.pop('barbcolor', None)        flagcolor = kw.pop('flagcolor', None)        self.sizes = kw.pop('sizes', dict())        self.fill_empty = kw.pop('fill_empty', False)        self.barb_increments = kw.pop('barb_increments', dict())        self.rounding = kw.pop('rounding', True)        self.flip = kw.pop('flip_barb', False)        transform = kw.pop('transform', ax.transData)        # Flagcolor and and barbcolor provide convenience parameters for        # setting the facecolor and edgecolor, respectively, of the barb        # polygon.  We also work here to make the flag the same color as the        # rest of the barb by default        if None in (barbcolor, flagcolor):            kw['edgecolors'] = 'face'            if flagcolor:                kw['facecolors'] = flagcolor            elif barbcolor:                kw['facecolors'] = barbcolor            else:                # Set to facecolor passed in or default to black                kw.setdefault('facecolors', 'k')        else:            kw['edgecolors'] = barbcolor            kw['facecolors'] = flagcolor        # Parse out the data arrays from the various configurations supported        x, y, u, v, c = _parse_args(*args)        self.x = x        self.y = y        xy = np.hstack((x[:, np.newaxis], y[:, np.newaxis]))        # Make a collection        barb_size = self._length ** 2 / 4  # Empirically determined        mcollections.PolyCollection.__init__(self, [], (barb_size,),                                             offsets=xy,                                             transOffset=transform, **kw)        self.set_transform(transforms.IdentityTransform())        self.set_UVC(u, v, c)``
• `__init__()`方法为初始化方法，此方法中`flagcolor``barbcolor`为设置风羽颜色的关键字，中间的说明文字提示颜色设置是针对所有的风羽的，所以通过颜色设置达不到风羽中既有空心白色三角又有实心黑色三角。初始化方法中在对一些参数进行了初始化赋值后执行了`set_UVC()`方法，所以我们顺着这个`set_UVC()`方法往下继续读。

## 3.`set_UVC()`

``    def set_UVC(self, U, V, C=None):        self.u = ma.masked_invalid(U, copy=False).ravel()        self.v = ma.masked_invalid(V, copy=False).ravel()        if C is not None:            c = ma.masked_invalid(C, copy=False).ravel()            x, y, u, v, c = delete_masked_points(self.x.ravel(),                                                 self.y.ravel(),                                                 self.u, self.v, c)        else:            x, y, u, v = delete_masked_points(self.x.ravel(), self.y.ravel(),                                              self.u, self.v)        magnitude = np.hypot(u, v)        flags, emptyflags,barbs, halves, empty = self._find_tails(magnitude,                                                       self.rounding,                                                       **self.barb_increments)        # Get the vertices for each of the barbs        plot_barbs = self._make_barbs(u, v, flags, emptyflags,barbs, halves, empty,                                      self._length, self._pivot, self.sizes,                                      self.fill_empty, self.flip)        self.set_verts(plot_barbs)        # Set the color array        if C is not None:            self.set_array(c)        # Update the offsets in case the masked data changed        xy = np.hstack((x[:, np.newaxis], y[:, np.newaxis]))        self._offsets = xy        self.stale = True``
• 在此方法中，首先进行了变量的命名赋值，然后依次执行了方法`_find_tails``_make_barbs``_make_barbs`的输入为`_find_tails`的输出，`_find_tails`的输入中有一个为`magnitude = np.hypot(u, v)``np.hypot()`为勾股定理方法，因此可知`magnitude`为风速。

## 4.`_find_tails`

``    def _find_tails(self, mag, rounding=True, half=5, full=10, flag=50):        '''        Find how many of each of the tail pieces is necessary.  Flag        specifies the increment for a flag, barb for a full barb, and half for        half a barb. Mag should be the magnitude of a vector (i.e., >= 0).        This returns a tuple of:            (*number of flags*, *number of barbs*, *half_flag*, *empty_flag*)        *half_flag* is a boolean whether half of a barb is needed,        since there should only ever be one half on a given        barb. *empty_flag* flag is an array of flags to easily tell if        a barb is empty (too low to plot any barbs/flags.        '''        # If rounding, round to the nearest multiple of half, the smallest        # increment        if rounding:            mag = half * (mag / half + 0.5).astype(np.int)        num_flags = np.floor(mag / flag).astype(np.int)        mag = np.mod(mag, flag)        num_barb = np.floor(mag / full).astype(np.int)        mag = np.mod(mag, full)        half_flag = mag >= half        empty_flag = ~(half_flag | (num_flags > 0) | (num_emptyflags > 0) |(num_barb > 0))        return num_flags,num_barb, half_flag, empty_flag``
• 通过读此方法的说明文档可知，此方法作用为根据输入的风速、设置的短线长线三角的数值计算并返回三角、长线、短线的个数以及有没有无风的情况。

## 5.`_make_barbs`

``    def _make_barbs(self, u, v, nflags, nbarbs, half_barb, empty_flag, length,                    pivot, sizes, fill_empty, flip):        '''        This function actually creates the wind barbs.  *u* and *v*        are components of the vector in the *x* and *y* directions,        respectively.        *nflags*, *nbarbs*, and *half_barb*, empty_flag* are,        *respectively, the number of flags, number of barbs, flag for        *half a barb, and flag for empty barb, ostensibly obtained        *from :meth:`_find_tails`.        *length* is the length of the barb staff in points.        *pivot* specifies the point on the barb around which the        entire barb should be rotated.  Right now, valid options are        'head' and 'middle'.        *sizes* is a dictionary of coefficients specifying the ratio        of a given feature to the length of the barb. These features        include:            - *spacing*: space between features (flags, full/half               barbs)            - *height*: distance from shaft of top of a flag or full               barb            - *width* - width of a flag, twice the width of a full barb            - *emptybarb* - radius of the circle used for low               magnitudes        *fill_empty* specifies whether the circle representing an        empty barb should be filled or not (this changes the drawing        of the polygon).        *flip* is a flag indicating whether the features should be flipped to        the other side of the barb (useful for winds in the southern        hemisphere.        This function returns list of arrays of vertices, defining a polygon        for each of the wind barbs.  These polygons have been rotated to        properly align with the vector direction.        '''        # These control the spacing and size of barb elements relative to the        # length of the shaft        spacing = length * sizes.get('spacing', 0.125)        full_height = length * sizes.get('height', 0.4)        full_width = length * sizes.get('width', 0.25)        empty_rad = length * sizes.get('emptybarb', 0.15)        # Controls y point where to pivot the barb.        pivot_points = dict(tip=0.0, middle=-length / 2.)        # Check for flip        if flip:            full_height = -full_height        endx = 0.0        endy = pivot_points[pivot.lower()]        # Get the appropriate angle for the vector components.  The offset is        # due to the way the barb is initially drawn, going down the y-axis.        # This makes sense in a meteorological mode of thinking since there 0        # degrees corresponds to north (the y-axis traditionally)        angles = -(ma.arctan2(v, u) + np.pi / 2)        # Used for low magnitude.  We just get the vertices, so if we make it        # out here, it can be reused.  The center set here should put the        # center of the circle at the location(offset), rather than at the        # same point as the barb pivot; this seems more sensible.        circ = CirclePolygon((0, 0), radius=empty_rad).get_verts()        if fill_empty:            empty_barb = circ        else:            # If we don't want the empty one filled, we make a degenerate            # polygon that wraps back over itself            empty_barb = np.concatenate((circ, circ[::-1]))        barb_list = []        for index, angle in np.ndenumerate(angles):            # If the vector magnitude is too weak to draw anything, plot an            # empty circle instead            if empty_flag[index]:                # We can skip the transform since the circle has no preferred                # orientation                barb_list.append(empty_barb)                continue            poly_verts = [(endx, endy)]            offset = length            # Add vertices for each flag            for i in range(nflags[index]):                # The spacing that works for the barbs is a little to much for                # the flags, but this only occurs when we have more than 1                # flag.                if offset != length:                    offset += spacing / 2.                poly_verts.extend(                    [[endx, endy + offset],                     [endx + full_height, endy - full_width / 2 + offset],                     [endx, endy - full_width + offset]])                offset -= full_width + spacing            # Add vertices for each barb.  These really are lines, but works            # great adding 3 vertices that basically pull the polygon out and            # back down the line            for i in range(nbarbs[index]):                poly_verts.extend(                    [(endx, endy + offset),                     (endx + full_height, endy + offset + full_width / 2),                     (endx, endy + offset)])                offset -= spacing            # Add the vertices for half a barb, if needed            if half_barb[index]:                # If the half barb is the first on the staff, traditionally it                # is offset from the end to make it easy to distinguish from a                # barb with a full one                if offset == length:                    poly_verts.append((endx, endy + offset))                    offset -= 1.5 * spacing                poly_verts.extend(                    [(endx, endy + offset),                     (endx + full_height / 2, endy + offset + full_width / 4),                     (endx, endy + offset)])            # Rotate the barb according the angle. Making the barb first and            # then rotating it made the math for drawing the barb really easy.            # Also, the transform framework makes doing the rotation simple.            poly_verts = transforms.Affine2D().rotate(-angle).transform(                poly_verts)            barb_list.append(poly_verts)        return barb_list``
• 通过读此方法的说明文档可知，此方法作用为根据输入的风数据以及短线长线三角的个数绘制风羽风向杆。
• 绘制过程为：判断地图坐标点是不是无风，如果无风就绘制一个空心圆圈代表。如果有风就开始按照三角、长线、短线的顺序绘制。
• 绘制方法为：
1. 创建一个用于存储关键点坐标的列表`poly_verts`
2. 计算关键点坐标
3. 通过`transform`方法将关键点坐标列表中的各个关键点依次用黑线连接起来，最终将风羽风向杆绘制出来
• 此方法的几个关键变量：
1. `spacing`：风羽上短线长线以及三角间的距离
2. `full_height`：三角的高度
3. `full_width` ：三角的宽度
4. `endx` ：风羽绘制的起始点x坐标
5. `endy`：风羽绘制的起始点y坐标
6. `angles`：风向杆角度
7. `poly_verts` ：绘制风羽风向杆的关键点列表
8. `offset`：绘制完一个三角或线后下一个三角或线的关键起始坐标
``            poly_verts = [(endx, endy)]            offset = length            # Add vertices for each flag            for i in range(nflags[index]):                # The spacing that works for the barbs is a little to much for                # the flags, but this only occurs when we have more than 1                # flag.                if offset != length:                    offset += spacing / 2.                poly_verts.extend(                    [[endx, endy + offset],                     [endx + full_height, endy - full_width / 2 + offset],                     [endx, endy - full_width + offset]])                offset -= full_width + spacing``
• 这一段是绘制风羽的主要代码，利用图片的形式说明

# 三、绘制空心实心三角

在了解了风羽的绘制过程后，发现可以通过增加关键点直接绘制实心三角，通过原绘制方法绘制空心三角。

## 1.实心三角绘制

• 实心三角绘制代码

``        # Add vertices for each flag        for i in range(nflags[index]):            # The spacing that works for the barbs is a little to much for            # the flags, but this only occurs when we have more than 1            # flag.            if offset != length:                offset += spacing / 2.            poly_verts.extend(                [[endx, endy + offset],                 [endx + full_height/4, endy - full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx, endy - full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx + full_height/4, endy - full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx + full_height/2, endy - full_width / 4 + offset],                 [endx, endy - full_width / 4 + offset],                 [endx + full_height/2, endy - full_width / 4 + offset],                 [endx + 3*full_height/4, endy - 3*full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx, endy - 3*full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx + 3*full_height/4, endy - 3*full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx + full_height, endy - full_width / 2 + offset],                 [endx,endy-full_width/2+offset],                 [endx + full_height, endy - full_width / 2 + offset],                 [endx + 3*full_height/4, endy - 5*full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx, endy - 5*full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx + 3*full_height/4, endy - 5*full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx + full_height/2, endy - 3*full_width / 4 + offset],                 [endx, endy - 3*full_width / 4 + offset],                 [endx + full_height/2, endy - 3*full_width / 4 + offset],                 [endx + full_height/4, endy - 7*full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx, endy - 7*full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx + full_height/4, endy - 7*full_width / 8 + offset],                 [endx, endy - full_width + offset]])            offset -= full_width + spacing``
• 实心三角绘制示意图

• 方法参数中加入nfullflags

``def _make_barbs(self, u, v, nfullflags, nflags,nbarbs, half_barb, empty_flag, length,pivot, sizes, fill_empty, flip):'...'``

## 2.实心三角个数计算

``    def _find_tails(self, mag, rounding=True, half=2, full=4, flag=20,fullflag=50):        '''        Find how many of each of the tail pieces is necessary.  Flag        specifies the increment for a flag, barb for a full barb, and half for        half a barb. Mag should be the magnitude of a vector (i.e., >= 0).        This returns a tuple of:            (*number of flags*, *number of barbs*, *half_flag*, *empty_flag*)        *half_flag* is a boolean whether half of a barb is needed,        since there should only ever be one half on a given        barb. *empty_flag* flag is an array of flags to easily tell if        a barb is empty (too low to plot any barbs/flags.        '''        # If rounding, round to the nearest multiple of half, the smallest        # increment        if rounding:            mag = half * (mag / half + 0.5).astype(np.int)        num_fullflags = np.floor(mag / fullflag).astype(np.int)        mag = np.mod(mag, fullflag)        num_flags = np.floor(mag / flag).astype(np.int)        mag = np.mod(mag, flag)        num_barb = np.floor(mag / full).astype(np.int)        mag = np.mod(mag, full)        half_flag = mag >= half        empty_flag = ~(half_flag | (num_flags > 0) | (num_fullflags > 0) |(num_barb > 0))        return num_fullflags,num_flags,num_barb, half_flag, empty_flag``

## 3. 调整`set_UVC`中相关方法使用

``        fullflags, flags,barbs, halves, empty = self._find_tails(magnitude,                                                       self.rounding,                                                       **self.barb_increments)        # Get the vertices for each of the barbs        plot_barbs = self._make_barbs(u, v, fullflags, flags,barbs, halves, empty,                                      self._length, self._pivot, self.sizes,                                      self.fill_empty, self.flip)``

# 四、测试

``import matplotlib.pyplot as pltfig=plt.figure()ax=fig.add_subplot(111);ax.axis([-1,1,-1,1])ax.set_xticks([])ax.set_yticks([])ax.barbs(0,0,30*1.5,40*1.5,length=8,linewidth=0.5)plt.show()``

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