Django实现组合搜索

2018-01-23 09:40:28来源:cnblogs.com作者:W-D人点击

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一、实现方法

1.纯模板语言实现

2.自定义simpletag实现(本质是简化了纯模板语言的判断)

二、基本原理

原理都是通过django路由系统,匹配url筛选条件,将筛选条件作为数据库查询结果,返回给前端。

例如:路由系统中的url格式是这样:

url(r'^article-(?P<article_type_id>/d+)-(?P<category_id>/d+).html',views.filter)

其中article_type_id和category_id和数据库中字段是相对应的,此时当一个url为article-1-2.html时候,后台处理函数的参数将是一个字典{'article_type_id': 1, 'category_id': 1},然后将该条件作为数据库查询条件,最后得出结果返回给前端

三、代码样例

方法1:纯模板语言实现

urls.py

#!/usr/bin/env python3#_*_ coding:utf-8 _*_#Author:wdfrom django.conf.urls import urlfrom . import viewsurlpatterns = [    url(r'^$',views.index),    url(r'^article-(?P<article_type_id>/d+)-(?P<category_id>/d+).html',views.filter),]

models.py

from django.db import modelsclass Category(models.Model):    caption=models.CharField(max_length=64)class Article_type(models.Model):    caption=models.CharField(max_length=64)class Article(models.Model):    title=models.CharField(max_length=64)    content=models.CharField(max_length=256)    category=models.ForeignKey(to='Category')    article_type=models.ForeignKey(to='Article_type'

views.py

def filter(request,*args,**kwargs):    if request.method=="GET":        condition={}        for k,v in kwargs.items():                    kwargs[k]=int(v)  #模板if判断row.id是数字,所以这里需要转换                    if v=="0":#当条件为0代表所选的是全部,那么就不必要加入到过滤条件中                        pass                    else:                        condition[k]=int(v)        aritcle=models.Article.objects.filter(**condition)        aritcle_type=models.Article_type.objects.all()        aritcle_category=models.Category.objects.all()        return  render(request,'search.html',{            'aritcle':aritcle,            'article_type':aritcle_type,            'article_category':aritcle_category,            'article_arg':kwargs,#将当前的筛选条件传递给html        })

html模板

<!DOCTYPE html><html lang="en"><head>    <meta charset="UTF-8">    <title>Title</title>    <style>        .container a{            display: inline-block;            padding: 3px 5px;            margin: 5px;            border: 1px solid #dddddd ;        }        .active{            background-color: rebeccapurple;        }    </style></head><body><h1>搜索条件</h1><div class="container">    {% if article_arg.article_type_id == 0 %}        <a class="active" href="/cmdb/article-0-{{ article_arg.category_id }}.html">全部</a>    {% else %}         <a  href="/cmdb/article-0-{{ article_arg.category_id }}.html">全部</a>    {% endif %}    {% for row in article_type %}        {% if row.id == article_arg.article_type_id %}            <a class="active" href="/cmdb/article-{{ row.id }}-{{ article_arg.category_id }}.html">{{ row.caption }}</a>        {% else %}            <a  href="/cmdb/article-{{ row.id }}-{{ article_arg.category_id }}.html">{{ row.caption }}</a>        {% endif %}    {% endfor %}</div><div class="container">     {% if article_arg.category_id == 0 %}        <a class="active" href="/cmdb/article-{{ article_arg.article_type_id }}-0.html">全部</a>    {% else %}          <a  href="/cmdb/article-{{ article_arg.article_type_id }}-0.html">全部</a>    {% endif %}    {% for row in article_category %}        {% if row.id == article_arg.category_id %}        <a class="active" href="/cmdb/article-{{ article_arg.article_type_id }}-{{ row.id }}.html">{{ row.caption }}</a>        {% else %}        <a href="/cmdb/article-{{ article_arg.article_type_id }}-{{ row.id }}.html">{{ row.caption }}</a>        {% endif %}    {% endfor %}</div><h1>查询结果</h1><div>    {% for row in aritcle %}        <div>{{ row.id }}-{{ row.title }}</div>    {% endfor %}</div></body></html>

方法二:使用simpletag实现

定义simpletag,参考博客Django基础篇

myfilter.py

#!/usr/bin/env python3#_*_ coding:utf-8 _*_#Author:wdfrom django import templatefrom django.utils.safestring import mark_saferegister=template.Library()@register.simple_tagdef filter_all(article_arg,condition):    '''    处理条件为全部    :param article_arg: 当前url字典:如{'article_type_id': 1, 'category_id': 1}    :param condition: 要处理的条件,如article_type_id,用于区分当前处理选择了那个全部    :return: 返回下面页面形式    {% if article_arg.article_type_id == 0 %}        <a class="active" href="/cmdb/article-0-{{ article_arg.category_id }}.html">全部</a>    {% else %}         <a  href="/cmdb/article-0-{{ article_arg.category_id }}.html">全部</a>    {% endif %}    {% for row in article_type %}        {% if row.id == article_arg.article_type_id %}            <a class="active" href="/cmdb/article-{{ row.id }}-{{ article_arg.category_id }}.html">{{ row.caption }}</a>        {% else %}            <a  href="/cmdb/article-{{ row.id }}-{{ article_arg.category_id }}.html">{{ row.caption }}</a>        {% endif %}    {% endfor %}    '''    if condition=='article_type_id':        if article_arg[condition]==0:            print(article_arg['category_id'])            res= '<a class ="active" href="/cmdb/article-0-%s.html">全部</a>' % article_arg['category_id']        else:            res = '<a href="/cmdb/article-0-%s.html">全部</a>' % article_arg['category_id']        return mark_safe(res)    elif condition=='category_id':        if article_arg['category_id']==0:            res = '<a class ="active" href="/cmdb/article-%s-0.html">全部</a>' % article_arg['article_type_id']        else:            res = '<a href="/cmdb/article-%s-0.html">全部</a>' % article_arg['article_type_id']        return mark_safe(res)@register.simple_tagdef filter_type(article_type,article_arg):    '''   :param article_type: article_type对象   :param article_arg: 当前url字典   :return:    {% for row in article_type %}        {% if row.id == article_arg.article_type_id %}            <a class="active" href="/cmdb/article-{{ row.id }}-{{ article_arg.category_id }}.html">{{ row.caption }}</a>        {% else %}            <a  href="/cmdb/article-{{ row.id }}-{{ article_arg.category_id }}.html">{{ row.caption }}</a>        {% endif %}    {% endfor %}     '''    res=[]    for row in article_type:        if row.id== article_arg['article_type_id']:           temp='<a class="active" href="/cmdb/article-%s-%s.html">%s</a>' %(row.id,article_arg['category_id'],row.caption)        else:            temp = '<a  href="/cmdb/article-%s-%s.html">%s</a>' % (row.id, article_arg['category_id'],row.caption)        res.append(temp)    return mark_safe("".join(res))@register.simple_tagdef filter_category(article_category,article_arg):    '''   :param article_type: article_category对象   :param article_arg: 当前url字典   :return:    {% for row in article_category %}        {% if row.id == article_arg.category_id %}        <a class="active" href="/cmdb/article-{{ article_arg.article_type_id }}-{{ row.id }}.html">{{ row.caption }}</a>        {% else %}        <a href="/cmdb/article-{{ article_arg.article_type_id }}-{{ row.id }}.html">{{ row.caption }}</a>        {% endif %}    {% endfor %}     '''    res=[]    for row in article_category:        if row.id== article_arg['category_id']:           temp='<a class="active" href="/cmdb/article-%s-%s.html">%s</a>' %(article_arg['article_type_id'],row.id,row.caption)        else:            temp = '<a  href="/cmdb/article-%s-%s.html">%s</a>' % (article_arg['article_type_id'],row.id,row.caption)        res.append(temp)    return mark_safe("".join(res))

html模板

{% load myfilter %}<!DOCTYPE html><html lang="en"><head>    <meta charset="UTF-8">    <title>Title</title>    <style>        .container a{            display: inline-block;            padding: 3px 5px;            margin: 5px;            border: 1px solid #dddddd ;        }        .active{            background-color: rebeccapurple;        }    </style></head><body><h1>搜索条件</h1><div class="container">    {% filter_all article_arg 'article_type_id' %}    {% filter_type article_type article_arg %}</div><div class="container">    {% filter_all article_arg 'category_id' %}    {% filter_category article_category article_arg %}</div><h1>查询结果</h1><div>    {% for row in aritcle %}        <div>{{ row.id }}-{{ row.title }}</div>    {% endfor %}</div></body></html>

ps附上简图:

四、其他变化

在如上的示例中,我们的过滤条件是从数据库中拿到,有时候我们定义的时候使用的是静态字段,此时组合搜索会稍微修改。

1.model定义

class Article(models.Model):    title=models.CharField(max_length=64)    content=models.CharField(max_length=256)    category=models.ForeignKey(to='Category')    article_type=(    #使用静态字段放入内存        (1,'linux'),        (2,'python'),        (3,'go'),    )

2.处理函数变化

###获取####aritcle_type=models.Article.article_type#直接获取类的静态字段

3.simpletag相应改变

###由于我们传递的元祖,所以取值使用元祖方式article_type[0]# 筛选条件idarticle_type[1]# 筛选条件名称

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