【WPF】UI虚拟化之------自定义VirtualizingWrapPanel

2017-12-15 19:29:26来源:CSDN作者:catshitone人点击

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前言

前几天QA报了一个关于OOM的bug,在排查的过程中发现,ListBox控件中被塞入了过多的Item,而ListBox又定义了两种样式的ItemsPanelTemplate。一种用的是虚拟化的VirtualizingStackPanel,另一种没有考虑虚拟化用的是WrapPanel。所以当ListBox切换到第二种Template,而且有很多Item的时候,内存就爆掉然后直接挂了。

然后就想着有没有现成的VirtualizingWrapPanel可以直接拿来用用,可惜微软并没有直接给我们提供这种panel,但是提供了VirtualizingPanel这个抽象类。没办法只能自己动手做了,借助于VirtualizingPanel和IScrollInfo。IScrollInfo主要是用来滚动效果,而VirtualizingPanel则提供了虚拟化过程中,child的移除和添加操作。其实虚拟化的本质不就是把需要显示到UI上的item画上去,把已经画上去但不需要再显示的撤下来嘛!

因为改bug的时候又来了个新的需求,就是要把WrapPanel中每一行的item之间的距离设置为等间距的,所以这次的UI虚拟化之旅确切来说应该是自定义一个VirtualizingUniformGridWrapPanel

实现

1. 新建类VirtualizingWrapPanel,继承VirtualizingPanel并实现IScrollInfo

public class VirtualizingWrapPanel : VirtualizingPanel, IScrollInfo{}

然后添加一个TranslateTransform字段,这主要是滚动时需要用到。

private TranslateTransform trans = new TranslateTransform();

接下来添加几个依赖属性,设置内部Child的宽、高和鼠标滚动一次的偏移量。

public static readonly DependencyProperty ChildWidthProperty = DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("ChildWidth", typeof(double), typeof(VirtualizingWrapPanel), new FrameworkPropertyMetadata(200.0, FrameworkPropertyMetadataOptions.AffectsMeasure | FrameworkPropertyMetadataOptions.AffectsArrange));public static readonly DependencyProperty ChildHeightProperty = DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("ChildHeight", typeof(double), typeof(VirtualizingWrapPanel), new FrameworkPropertyMetadata(200.0, FrameworkPropertyMetadataOptions.AffectsMeasure | FrameworkPropertyMetadataOptions.AffectsArrange));//鼠标每一次滚动 UI上的偏移public static readonly DependencyProperty ScrollOffsetProperty = DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("ScrollOffset", typeof(int), typeof(VirtualizingWrapPanel), new PropertyMetadata(10));public int ScrollOffset{     get { return Convert.ToInt32(GetValue(ScrollOffsetProperty)); }     set { SetValue(ScrollOffsetProperty, value); }}public double ChildWidth{     get => Convert.ToDouble(GetValue(ChildWidthProperty));     set => SetValue(ChildWidthProperty, value);}public double ChildHeight{     get => Convert.ToDouble(GetValue(ChildHeightProperty));     set => SetValue(ChildHeightProperty, value);}

2. 理解WPF中的布局定位流程

WPF中布局定位的计算是通过Measure和Arrange方法构成的。以VirtualizingWrapPanel为例(以下简称VWP),VWP的父layout调用自身的Measure(Size availableSize) 方法,告诉VWP你有availableSize的大小可以使用,然后MeasureCore会根据一定的测量逻辑,告诉VWP的protected override Size MeasureOverride(Size availableSize) 方法,你有availableSize的大小可以用,在这里VWP调用其子元素的Measure方法,告诉子元素有多大的Size可以用(此例,因为我们子child的大小都是通过依赖属性设置好的,所以直接传入即可,子child的DesiredSize也不考虑)。子child都Measure完之后,返回一个Size,这个Size是VMP自身需要的Size,父layout会通过VWP.DesiredSize属性拿到这个值。然后ArrangeCore又会根据一定的逻辑,分配一个finalSize给VWP。VWP通过protected override Size ArrangeOverride(Size finalSize)方法就收到了这个值,然后在给定的finalSize里划分不同的区域,调用子child的Arrange方法,告诉每个child应该在哪个区域。

 /// <summary>        /// scroll/availableSize/添加删除元素 改变都会触发  edit元素不会改变        /// </summary>        /// <param></param>        /// <returns></returns>        protected override Size MeasureOverride(Size availableSize)        {            this.UpdateScrollInfo(availableSize);//availableSize更新后,更新滚动条            int firstVisiableIndex = 0, lastVisiableIndex = 0;            GetVisiableRange(ref firstVisiableIndex, ref lastVisiableIndex);//availableSize更新后,获取当前viewport内可放置的item的开始和结束索引  firstIdnex-lastIndex之间的item可能部分在viewport中也可能都不在viewport中。            UIElementCollection children = this.InternalChildren;//因为配置了虚拟化,所以children的个数一直是viewport区域内的个数,如果没有虚拟化则是ItemSource的整个的个数            IItemContainerGenerator generator = this.ItemContainerGenerator;            //获得第一个可被显示的item的位置            GeneratorPosition startPosi = generator.GeneratorPositionFromIndex(firstVisiableIndex);            int childIndex = (startPosi.Offset == 0) ? startPosi.Index : startPosi.Index + 1;//startPosi在chilren中的索引            using (generator.StartAt(startPosi, GeneratorDirection.Forward, true))            {                int itemIndex = firstVisiableIndex;                while (itemIndex <= lastVisiableIndex)//生成lastVisiableIndex-firstVisiableIndex个item                {                    bool newlyRealized = false;                    var child = generator.GenerateNext(out newlyRealized) as UIElement;                    if (newlyRealized)                    {                        if (childIndex >= children.Count)                            base.AddInternalChild(child);                        else                        {                            base.InsertInternalChild(childIndex, child);                        }                        generator.PrepareItemContainer(child);                    }                    else                    {                        if (!child.Equals(children[childIndex]))                        {                            base.RemoveInternalChildRange(childIndex, 1);                        }                    }                    child.Measure(new Size(this.ChildWidth, this.ChildHeight));                    //child.DesiredSize//child想要的size                    itemIndex++;                    childIndex++;                }            }            CleanUpItems(firstVisiableIndex, lastVisiableIndex);            return new Size(double.IsInfinity(availableSize.Width) ? 0 : availableSize.Width, double.IsInfinity(availableSize.Height) ? 0 : availableSize.Height);//自身想要的size        }        protected override Size ArrangeOverride(Size finalSize)        {            Debug.WriteLine("----ArrangeOverride");            var generator = this.ItemContainerGenerator;            UpdateScrollInfo(finalSize);            int childPerRow = CalculateChildrenPerRow(finalSize);            double availableItemWidth = finalSize.Width / childPerRow;            for (int i = 0; i <= this.Children.Count - 1; i++)            {                var child = this.Children[i];                int itemIndex = generator.IndexFromGeneratorPosition(new GeneratorPosition(i, 0));                int row = itemIndex / childPerRow;//current row                int column = itemIndex % childPerRow;                double xCorrdForItem = 0;                xCorrdForItem = column * availableItemWidth + (availableItemWidth - this.ChildWidth) / 2;                Rect rec = new Rect(xCorrdForItem, row * this.ChildHeight, this.ChildWidth, this.ChildHeight);                child.Arrange(rec);            }            return finalSize;        }

3. 什么时候应该刷新UI

MSDN文档 告诉我们,当ScrollViewer的offset, extent, or viewport 这三个属性发生变化时,应该当调用ScrollViewer的InvalidateScrollInfo方法,然后ScrollView就会自动更新滚动条长短和位置。此时也应该调用InvalidateMeasure方法,然后会重新Measure布局。
offset,extent和viewport的表示区域如下图:
这里写图片描述
黑色的表示实际显示到界面上的内容。如果不虚拟化则24个item都会在wrappanel中,虚拟化后只有需要显示的那部分(9-16)会在wrappanel中,其他的都删除了。

更新UI操作:

public void SetVerticalOffset(double offset)        {            if (offset < 0 || this.viewPort.Height >= this.extent.Height)                offset = 0;            else                if (offset + this.viewPort.Height >= this.extent.Height)                offset = this.extent.Height - this.viewPort.Height;            this.offset.Y = offset;            this.ScrollOwner?.InvalidateScrollInfo();//Scroll信息已过期            this.trans.Y = -offset;            this.InvalidateMeasure();//Measure信息已过期            //接下来会触发MeasureOverride()        }

4. 虚拟化操作

操作的第一步是获取当前VWP中已加载的所有的child和ListBox的数据源中所有的child。
VWP中children的获取可通过this.InternalChildren拿到。
数据源中children包含在this.ItemContainerGenerator 里面。
这里sdk有个bug,如果你不先调用this.InternalChildren,直接用ItemContainerGenerator后续生成child操作会返回null。

第二步,获取到应该显示到viewport区域内的第一个child和最后一个child的索引,此时viewport的大小可能已经是变化后的。(因为你可能滚动了鼠标,或者更改了VWP的宽高)

        /// <summary>        /// 获取所有item,在可视区域内第一个item和最后一个item的索引        /// </summary>        /// <param></param>        /// <param></param>        void GetVisiableRange(ref int firstIndex, ref int lastIndex)        {            int childPerRow = CalculateChildrenPerRow(this.extent);            firstIndex = Convert.ToInt32(Math.Floor(this.offset.Y / this.ChildHeight)) * childPerRow;            lastIndex = Convert.ToInt32(Math.Ceiling((this.offset.Y + this.viewPort.Height) / this.ChildHeight)) * childPerRow - 1;            int itemsCount = GetItemCount(this);            if (lastIndex >= itemsCount)                lastIndex = itemsCount - 1;        }

第三,将VWP中已不需在viewport内显示的的child从VWP和generator的container中移除。

        /// <summary>        /// 将不在可视区域内的item 移除        /// </summary>        /// <param>可视区域开始索引</param>        /// <param>可视区域结束索引</param>        void CleanUpItems(int startIndex, int endIndex)        {            var children = this.InternalChildren;            var generator = this.ItemContainerGenerator;            for (int i = children.Count - 1; i >= 0; i--)            {                var childGeneratorPosi = new GeneratorPosition(i, 0);                int itemIndex = generator.IndexFromGeneratorPosition(childGeneratorPosi);                if (itemIndex < startIndex || itemIndex > endIndex)                {                    generator.Remove(childGeneratorPosi, 1);                    RemoveInternalChildRange(i, 1);                }            }        }

这里虽然调用了generator.Remove方法,将不需要显示的进行移除,但是我发现移除后generator中元素的个数与ListBox绑定的数据源中元素的个数始终是一致的。所以我觉得可能是将次child从generator的container中移除了。因为你从上面的MeasureOverride方法中也看到了,新加时是调用generator的PrepareItemContainer方法。

5. UniformGrid效果的WrapPanel该怎么给child Arrange

其实就在上面的ArrangeOverride方法里,很简单:

 xCorrdForItem = column * availableItemWidth + (availableItemWidth - this.ChildWidth) / 2;

6. 存在的Bug或者问题

第一个bug你已经在上面的第4步看过了。
还有个bug就是如果为你的ListBox设置ItemsPanelTemplate是通过绑定的方式。那么使用时,VWP的ScrollOwner属性就会报null reference了(当然你也可以再加一个依赖属性,给其bind一个scrollview,解决)。而且滚动的时候页面会出现空白,明明新的child已经生成了,但就是不会显示的UI上。解决方法就是Code Behind吧,bind的方式不知道会产生多少为null的属性。

7. 使用方法

<ListBox Margin="0,50,0,0" Name="listB">            <ListBox.ItemTemplate>                <DataTemplate>                    <TextBlock Text="{Binding}" Width="70" Height="70"/>                </DataTemplate>            </ListBox.ItemTemplate>            <ListBox.ItemsPanel>                <ItemsPanelTemplate>                    <local:VirtualizingWrapPanel ScrollOffset="50" ChildHeight="70" ChildWidth="70"/>                </ItemsPanelTemplate>            </ListBox.ItemsPanel>        </ListBox>

8. 完整代码:

using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.Diagnostics;using System.Linq;using System.Text;using System.Threading.Tasks;using System.Windows;using System.Windows.Controls;using System.Windows.Controls.Primitives;using System.Windows.Media;namespace VirtualizingPPanel{    public class VirtualizingWrapPanel : VirtualizingPanel, IScrollInfo    {        private TranslateTransform trans = new TranslateTransform();        public VirtualizingWrapPanel()        {            this.RenderTransform = trans;        }        #region DependencyProperties        public static readonly DependencyProperty ChildWidthProperty = DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("ChildWidth", typeof(double), typeof(VirtualizingWrapPanel), new FrameworkPropertyMetadata(200.0, FrameworkPropertyMetadataOptions.AffectsMeasure | FrameworkPropertyMetadataOptions.AffectsArrange));        public static readonly DependencyProperty ChildHeightProperty = DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("ChildHeight", typeof(double), typeof(VirtualizingWrapPanel), new FrameworkPropertyMetadata(200.0, FrameworkPropertyMetadataOptions.AffectsMeasure | FrameworkPropertyMetadataOptions.AffectsArrange));        //鼠标每一次滚动 UI上的偏移        public static readonly DependencyProperty ScrollOffsetProperty = DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("ScrollOffset", typeof(int), typeof(VirtualizingWrapPanel), new PropertyMetadata(10));        public int ScrollOffset        {            get { return Convert.ToInt32(GetValue(ScrollOffsetProperty)); }            set { SetValue(ScrollOffsetProperty, value); }        }        public double ChildWidth        {            get => Convert.ToDouble(GetValue(ChildWidthProperty));            set => SetValue(ChildWidthProperty, value);        }        public double ChildHeight        {            get => Convert.ToDouble(GetValue(ChildHeightProperty));            set => SetValue(ChildHeightProperty, value);        }        #endregion        int GetItemCount(DependencyObject element)        {            var itemsControl = ItemsControl.GetItemsOwner(element);            return itemsControl.HasItems ? itemsControl.Items.Count : 0;        }        int CalculateChildrenPerRow(Size availableSize)        {            int childPerRow = 0;            if (availableSize.Width == double.PositiveInfinity)                childPerRow = this.Children.Count;            else                childPerRow = Math.Max(1, Convert.ToInt32(Math.Floor(availableSize.Width / this.ChildWidth)));            return childPerRow;        }        /// <summary>        /// width不超过availableSize的情况下,自身实际需要的Size(高度可能会超出availableSize)        /// </summary>        /// <param></param>        /// <param></param>        /// <returns></returns>        Size CalculateExtent(Size availableSize, int itemsCount)        {            int childPerRow = CalculateChildrenPerRow(availableSize);//现有宽度下 一行可以最多容纳多少个            return new Size(childPerRow * this.ChildWidth, this.ChildHeight * Math.Ceiling(Convert.ToDouble(itemsCount) / childPerRow));        }        /// <summary>        /// 更新滚动条        /// </summary>        /// <param></param>        void UpdateScrollInfo(Size availableSize)        {            var extent = CalculateExtent(availableSize, GetItemCount(this));//extent 自己实际需要            if (extent != this.extent)            {                this.extent = extent;                this.ScrollOwner.InvalidateScrollInfo();            }            if (availableSize != this.viewPort)            {                this.viewPort = availableSize;                this.ScrollOwner.InvalidateScrollInfo();            }        }        /// <summary>        /// 获取所有item,在可视区域内第一个item和最后一个item的索引        /// </summary>        /// <param></param>        /// <param></param>        void GetVisiableRange(ref int firstIndex, ref int lastIndex)        {            int childPerRow = CalculateChildrenPerRow(this.extent);            firstIndex = Convert.ToInt32(Math.Floor(this.offset.Y / this.ChildHeight)) * childPerRow;            lastIndex = Convert.ToInt32(Math.Ceiling((this.offset.Y + this.viewPort.Height) / this.ChildHeight)) * childPerRow - 1;            int itemsCount = GetItemCount(this);            if (lastIndex >= itemsCount)                lastIndex = itemsCount - 1;        }        /// <summary>        /// 将不在可视区域内的item 移除        /// </summary>        /// <param>可视区域开始索引</param>        /// <param>可视区域结束索引</param>        void CleanUpItems(int startIndex, int endIndex)        {            var children = this.InternalChildren;            var generator = this.ItemContainerGenerator;            for (int i = children.Count - 1; i >= 0; i--)            {                var childGeneratorPosi = new GeneratorPosition(i, 0);                int itemIndex = generator.IndexFromGeneratorPosition(childGeneratorPosi);                if (itemIndex < startIndex || itemIndex > endIndex)                {                    generator.Remove(childGeneratorPosi, 1);                    RemoveInternalChildRange(i, 1);                }            }        }        /// <summary>        /// scroll/availableSize/添加删除元素 改变都会触发  edit元素不会改变        /// </summary>        /// <param></param>        /// <returns></returns>        protected override Size MeasureOverride(Size availableSize)        {            this.UpdateScrollInfo(availableSize);//availableSize更新后,更新滚动条            int firstVisiableIndex = 0, lastVisiableIndex = 0;            GetVisiableRange(ref firstVisiableIndex, ref lastVisiableIndex);//availableSize更新后,获取当前viewport内可放置的item的开始和结束索引  firstIdnex-lastIndex之间的item可能部分在viewport中也可能都不在viewport中。            UIElementCollection children = this.InternalChildren;//因为配置了虚拟化,所以children的个数一直是viewport区域内的个数,如果没有虚拟化则是ItemSource的整个的个数            IItemContainerGenerator generator = this.ItemContainerGenerator;            //获得第一个可被显示的item的位置            GeneratorPosition startPosi = generator.GeneratorPositionFromIndex(firstVisiableIndex);            int childIndex = (startPosi.Offset == 0) ? startPosi.Index : startPosi.Index + 1;//startPosi在chilren中的索引            using (generator.StartAt(startPosi, GeneratorDirection.Forward, true))            {                int itemIndex = firstVisiableIndex;                while (itemIndex <= lastVisiableIndex)//生成lastVisiableIndex-firstVisiableIndex个item                {                    bool newlyRealized = false;                    var child = generator.GenerateNext(out newlyRealized) as UIElement;                    if (newlyRealized)                    {                        if (childIndex >= children.Count)                            base.AddInternalChild(child);                        else                        {                            base.InsertInternalChild(childIndex, child);                        }                        generator.PrepareItemContainer(child);                    }                    else                    {                        //处理 正在显示的child被移除了这种情况                        if (!child.Equals(children[childIndex]))                        {                            base.RemoveInternalChildRange(childIndex, 1);                        }                    }                    child.Measure(new Size(this.ChildWidth, this.ChildHeight));                    //child.DesiredSize//child想要的size                    itemIndex++;                    childIndex++;                }            }            CleanUpItems(firstVisiableIndex, lastVisiableIndex);            return new Size(double.IsInfinity(availableSize.Width) ? 0 : availableSize.Width, double.IsInfinity(availableSize.Height) ? 0 : availableSize.Height);//自身想要的size        }        protected override Size ArrangeOverride(Size finalSize)        {            Debug.WriteLine("----ArrangeOverride");            var generator = this.ItemContainerGenerator;            UpdateScrollInfo(finalSize);            int childPerRow = CalculateChildrenPerRow(finalSize);            double availableItemWidth = finalSize.Width / childPerRow;            for (int i = 0; i <= this.Children.Count - 1; i++)            {                var child = this.Children[i];                int itemIndex = generator.IndexFromGeneratorPosition(new GeneratorPosition(i, 0));                int row = itemIndex / childPerRow;//current row                int column = itemIndex % childPerRow;                double xCorrdForItem = 0;                xCorrdForItem = column * availableItemWidth + (availableItemWidth - this.ChildWidth) / 2;                Rect rec = new Rect(xCorrdForItem, row * this.ChildHeight, this.ChildWidth, this.ChildHeight);                child.Arrange(rec);            }            return finalSize;        }        protected override void OnRenderSizeChanged(SizeChangedInfo sizeInfo)        {            base.OnRenderSizeChanged(sizeInfo);            this.SetVerticalOffset(this.VerticalOffset);        }        protected override void OnClearChildren()        {            base.OnClearChildren();            this.SetVerticalOffset(0);        }        protected override void BringIndexIntoView(int index)        {            if (index < 0 || index >= Children.Count)                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException();            int row = index / CalculateChildrenPerRow(RenderSize);            SetVerticalOffset(row * this.ChildHeight);        }        #region IScrollInfo Interface        public bool CanVerticallyScroll { get; set; }        public bool CanHorizontallyScroll { get; set; }        private Size extent = new Size(0, 0);        public double ExtentWidth => this.extent.Width;        public double ExtentHeight => this.extent.Height;        private Size viewPort = new Size(0, 0);        public double ViewportWidth => this.viewPort.Width;        public double ViewportHeight => this.viewPort.Height;        private Point offset;        public double HorizontalOffset => this.offset.X;        public double VerticalOffset => this.offset.Y;        public ScrollViewer ScrollOwner { get; set; }        public void LineDown()        {            this.SetVerticalOffset(this.VerticalOffset + this.ScrollOffset);        }        public void LineLeft()        {            throw new NotImplementedException();        }        public void LineRight()        {            throw new NotImplementedException();        }        public void LineUp()        {            this.SetVerticalOffset(this.VerticalOffset - this.ScrollOffset);        }        public Rect MakeVisible(Visual visual, Rect rectangle)        {            return new Rect();        }        public void MouseWheelDown()        {            this.SetVerticalOffset(this.VerticalOffset + this.ScrollOffset);        }        public void MouseWheelLeft()        {            throw new NotImplementedException();        }        public void MouseWheelRight()        {            throw new NotImplementedException();        }        public void MouseWheelUp()        {            this.SetVerticalOffset(this.VerticalOffset - this.ScrollOffset);        }        public void PageDown()        {            this.SetVerticalOffset(this.VerticalOffset + this.viewPort.Height);        }        public void PageLeft()        {            throw new NotImplementedException();        }        public void PageRight()        {            throw new NotImplementedException();        }        public void PageUp()        {            this.SetVerticalOffset(this.VerticalOffset - this.viewPort.Height);        }        public void SetHorizontalOffset(double offset)        {            throw new NotImplementedException();        }        public void SetVerticalOffset(double offset)        {            if (offset < 0 || this.viewPort.Height >= this.extent.Height)                offset = 0;            else                if (offset + this.viewPort.Height >= this.extent.Height)                offset = this.extent.Height - this.viewPort.Height;            this.offset.Y = offset;            this.ScrollOwner?.InvalidateScrollInfo();            this.trans.Y = -offset;            this.InvalidateMeasure();            //接下来会触发MeasureOverride()        }        #endregion    }}

9. Demo下载

最终效果:
这里写图片描述

下载:
链接: https://pan.baidu.com/s/1jHMBFM2 密码: 4csp

参考

1. Magentaize!——正确实现 WPF 中的 UI 虚拟化
2. GitHub - digimezzo/WPFControls: WPF Controls
3.WPF布局

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