IdentityServer4 实现 OpenID Connect 和 OAuth 2.0

2017-01-12 11:19:38来源:cnblogs.com作者:田园里的蟋蟀人点击

关于 OAuth 2.0 的相关内容,点击查看:ASP.NET WebApi OWIN 实现 OAuth 2.0

OpenID 是一个去中心化的网上身份认证系统。对于支持 OpenID 的网站,用户不需要记住像用户名和密码这样的传统验证标记。取而代之的是,他们只需要预先在一个作为 OpenID 身份提供者(identity provider, IdP)的网站上注册。OpenID 是去中心化的,任何网站都可以使用 OpenID 来作为用户登录的一种方式,任何网站也都可以作为 OpenID 身份提供者。OpenID 既解决了问题而又不需要依赖于中心性的网站来确认数字身份。

OpenID 相关基本术语:

  • 最终用户(End User):想要向某个网站表明身份的人。
  • 标识(Identifier):最终用户用以标识其身份的 URL 或 XRI。
  • 身份提供者(Identity Provider, IdP):提供 OpenID URL 或 XRI 注册和验证服务的服务提供者。
  • 依赖方(Relying Party, RP):想要对最终用户的标识进行验证的网站。

以上概念来自:https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenID

针对 .NET Core 跨平台,微软官方并没有针对 OAuth 2.0 的实现(Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.OAuth组件,仅限客户端),IdentityServer4 实现了 ASP.NET Core 下的 OpenID Connect 和 OAuth 2.0,IdentityServer4 也是微软基金会成员。

阅读目录:

  • OpenID 和 OAuth 的区别
  • 客户端模式(Client Credentials)
  • 密码模式(resource owner password credentials)
  • 简化模式-With OpenID(implicit grant type)
  • 简化模式-With OpenID & OAuth(JS 客户端调用)
  • 混合模式-With OpenID & OAuth(Hybrid Flow)
  • ASP.NET Core Identity and Using EntityFramework Core for configuration data

开源地址:https://github.com/yuezhongxin/IdentityServer4.Demo

1. OpenID 和 OAuth 的区别

简单概括:

  • OpenID:authentication(认证),用户是谁?
  • OAuth:authorization(授权),用户能做什么?

其实,OAuth 的密码授权模式和 OpenID 有些类似,但也不相同,比如用户登录落网选择微博快捷登录方式,大致的区别:

  • OAuth:用户在微博授权页面输入微博的账号和密码,微博验证成功之后,返回 access_token,然后落网拿到 access_token 之后,再去请求微博的用户 API,微博授权中心验证 access_token,如果验证通过,则返回用户 API 的请求数据给落网。
  • OpenID:落网可以没有用户的任何实现,落网需要确认一个 URL 标识(可以是多个),然后用户登录的时候,选择一个 URL 进行登录(比如微博),跳转到微博 OpenID 登录页面,用户输入微博的账号和密码,微博验证成功之后,按照用户的选择,返回用户的一些信息。

可以看到,OAuth 首先需要拿到一个授权(access_token),然后再通过这个授权,去资源服务器(具体的 API),获取想要的一些数据,上面示例中,用户 API 只是资源服务器的一种(可以是视频 API、文章 API 等等),在这个过程中,OAuth 最重要的就是获取授权(四种模式),获取到授权之后,你就可以通过这个授权,做授权范围之类的任何事了。

而对于 OpenID 来说,授权和它没任何关系,它只关心的是用户,比如落网,可以不进行用户的任何实现(具体体现就是数据库没有 User 表),然后使用支持 OpenID 的服务(比如微博),通过特定的 URL 标识(可以看作是 OpenID 标识),然后输入提供服务的账号和密码,返回具体的用户信息,对于落网来说,它关心的是用户信息,仅此而已。

上面其实是 OAuth 的授权,所以会有“获得以下权限”提示,如果是 OpenID 的话,“权限”应该改为“用户信息”。

支持 OpenID 的服务列表:http://openid.net/get-an-openid/

OpenID 流程图(来自 Using OpenID):

2. 客户端模式(Client Credentials)

简单概述:客户端提供 ClientId 和 ClientSecret 给认证授权服务,验证如果成功,返回 access_token,客户端拿到 access_token,访问 API 资源服务。

2.1 认证授权服务配置

创建 ASP.NET Core 站点,Startup 配置修改如下:

public class Startup{    public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)    {        // configure identity server with in-memory stores, keys, clients and scopes        services.AddIdentityServer()            .AddTemporarySigningCredential()            .AddInMemoryApiResources(new List<ApiResource>            {                new ApiResource("api1", "My API")            })            .AddInMemoryClients(new List<Client>            {                // client credentials client                new Client                {                    ClientId = "client",                    AllowedGrantTypes = GrantTypes.ClientCredentials,                    ClientSecrets =                    {                        new Secret("secret".Sha256())                    },                    AllowedScopes = { "api1" }                }            });    }    public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)    {        loggerFactory.AddConsole(LogLevel.Debug);        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();        app.UseIdentityServer();    }}

IdentityServer4 中AddInMemory的相关配置,都是 Mock 的(代码配置),也可以把这些配置存储在数据库中,这个后面再讲。

AddInMemoryApiResources 增加的 API 资源服务(List 集合),也就此认证授权服务所管辖的 API 资源,比如上面配置的 api1,这个会在客户端调用的时候用到,如果不一致,是不允许访问的,另外,Clinet 中配置的AllowedScopes = { "api1" },表示此种授权模式允许的 API 资源集合(前提是需要添加ApiResource)。

配置很简单,我们也可以访问http://localhost:5000/.well-known/openid-configuration,查看具体的配置信息:

2.2 API 资源服务配置

API 资源服务站点,需要添加程序包:

"IdentityServer4.AccessTokenValidation": "1.0.1"

添加一个ValuesController

[Route("[controller]")][Authorize]public class ValuesController : ControllerBase{    [HttpGet]    public IActionResult Get()    {        return Content("hello world");    }}

2.3 单元测试

需要添加程序包:

"IdentityModel": "2.0.0"

单元测试代码:

[Fact]public async Task ClientCredentials_Test(){    // request token    var disco = await DiscoveryClient.GetAsync("http://localhost:5000");    var tokenClient = new TokenClient(disco.TokenEndpoint, "client", "secret");    var tokenResponse = await tokenClient.RequestClientCredentialsAsync("api1");    Assert.False(tokenResponse.IsError);    Console.WriteLine(tokenResponse.Json);    // call api    var client = new HttpClient();    client.SetBearerToken(tokenResponse.AccessToken);    var response = await client.GetAsync("http://localhost:5010/values");    Assert.True(response.IsSuccessStatusCode);    var content = await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();    Console.WriteLine(content);}

很简单,和我们之前用 ASP.NET WebApi OWIN 实现 OAuth 2.0 一样,只不过配置和调用简化了很多,因为 IdentityServer4 替我们做了很多工作。

3. 密码模式(resource owner password credentials)

简单概述:客户端提供 UserName 和 Password 给认证授权服务,验证如果成功,返回 access_token,客户端拿到 access_token,访问 API 资源服务。

3.1 认证授权服务配置

创建 ASP.NET Core 站点,Startup 配置修改如下:

public class Startup{    public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)    {        // configure identity server with in-memory stores, keys, clients and scopes        services.AddIdentityServer()            .AddTemporarySigningCredential()            .AddInMemoryApiResources(new List<ApiResource>            {                new ApiResource("api1", "My API")            })            .AddInMemoryClients(new List<Client>            {                // resource owner password grant client                new Client                {                    ClientId = "ro.client",                    AllowedGrantTypes = GrantTypes.ResourceOwnerPassword,                    ClientSecrets =                    {                        new Secret("secret".Sha256())                    },                    AllowedScopes = { "api1" }                }            })            .AddTestUsers(new List<TestUser>            {                new TestUser                {                    SubjectId = "1",                    Username = "xishuai",                    Password = "123"                }            });    }    public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)    {        loggerFactory.AddConsole(LogLevel.Debug);        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();        app.UseIdentityServer();    }}

和客户端模式不同的是,AllowedGrantTypes授权模式改为了ResourceOwnerPassword,然后增加了测试用户(用来验证用户名和密码),也可以存储在数据库中。

3.2 API 资源服务配置

API 资源服务站点,需要添加程序包:

"IdentityServer4.AccessTokenValidation": "1.0.1"

添加一个IdentityController

[Route("[controller]")][Authorize]public class IdentityController : ControllerBase{    [HttpGet]    public IActionResult Get()    {        return new JsonResult(from c in User.Claims select new { c.Type, c.Value });    }}

3.3 单元测试

需要添加程序包:

"IdentityModel": "2.0.0"

单元测试代码:

[Fact]public async Task ResourceOwnerPassword_Test(){    // request token    var disco = await DiscoveryClient.GetAsync("http://localhost:5000");    var tokenClient = new TokenClient(disco.TokenEndpoint, "ro.client", "secret");    var tokenResponse = await tokenClient.RequestResourceOwnerPasswordAsync("xishuai", "123", "api1");    Assert.False(tokenResponse.IsError);    Console.WriteLine(tokenResponse.Json);    // call api    var client = new HttpClient();    client.SetBearerToken(tokenResponse.AccessToken);    var response = await client.GetAsync("http://localhost:5010/identity");    Assert.True(response.IsSuccessStatusCode);    var content = await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();    Console.WriteLine(JArray.Parse(content));}

4. 简化模式-With OpenID(implicit grant type)

简化模式在 IdentityServer4 中的实现,就是 OpenID Connect。

简单概述:客户端确定 URL(用户认证服务),登录在用户认证服务,验证成功,返回客户端想要的用户数据,并使此用户为登录状态,可以在客户端进行注销用户。

4.1 认证授权服务配置

创建 ASP.NET Core 站点,Startup 配置修改如下:

public class Startup{    public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)    {        // configure identity server with in-memory stores, keys, clients and scopes        services.AddIdentityServer()            .AddTemporarySigningCredential()            .AddInMemoryIdentityResources(new List<IdentityResource>            {                new IdentityResources.OpenId(),                new IdentityResources.Profile(),            })            .AddInMemoryClients(new List<Client>            {                // OpenID Connect implicit flow client (MVC)                new Client                {                    ClientId = "mvc",                    ClientName = "MVC Client",                    AllowedGrantTypes = GrantTypes.Implicit,                    RedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5020/signin-oidc" },                    PostLogoutRedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5020" },                    AllowedScopes =                    {                        IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.OpenId,                        IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.Profile                    }                }            })            .AddTestUsers(new List<TestUser>            {                new TestUser                {                    SubjectId = "1",                    Username = "xishuai",                    Password = "123",                    Claims = new List<Claim>                    {                        new Claim("name", "xishuai"),                        new Claim("website", "http://xishuai.cnblogs.com")                    }                }            });    }    public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)    {        loggerFactory.AddConsole(LogLevel.Debug);        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();        app.UseIdentityServer();    }}

AddInMemoryIdentityResourcesAllowedScopes所配置的,是客户端允许访问的用户信息,具体查看:Requesting Claims using Scope Values

ClientId 很重要,必须和客户端一一对应,所以想要使用 OpenID 认证服务的客户端,需要向提供 OpenID 认证服务的机构,申请一个 ClientId,OpenID 认证服务会统一发放一个用户登录的 URL。

TestUser中的Claims配置,其实就是IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.Profile

另外,还有用户登录的一些操作代码,这边就不贴了,可以查看具体的实现:ImplicitServer.Web

4.2 客户端服务配置

创建 ASP.NET Core 站点,添加程序包:

"Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.Cookies": "1.0.*","Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.OpenIdConnect": "1.0.*"

Startup 配置修改如下:

public Startup(IHostingEnvironment env){    var builder = new ConfigurationBuilder()        .SetBasePath(env.ContentRootPath)        .AddJsonFile("appsettings.json", optional: true, reloadOnChange: true)        .AddJsonFile($"appsettings.{env.EnvironmentName}.json", optional: true)        .AddEnvironmentVariables();    Configuration = builder.Build();}public IConfigurationRoot Configuration { get; }public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services){    services.AddMvc();}public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory){    JwtSecurityTokenHandler.DefaultInboundClaimTypeMap.Clear();    loggerFactory.AddConsole(Configuration.GetSection("Logging"));    loggerFactory.AddDebug();    if (env.IsDevelopment())    {        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();    }    else    {        app.UseExceptionHandler("/Home/Error");    }    app.UseCookieAuthentication(new CookieAuthenticationOptions    {        AuthenticationScheme = "Cookies"    });    app.UseOpenIdConnectAuthentication(new OpenIdConnectOptions    {        AuthenticationScheme = "oidc",        SignInScheme = "Cookies",        Authority = "http://localhost:5001",        RequireHttpsMetadata = false,        ClientId = "mvc",        SaveTokens = true    });        app.UseStaticFiles();    app.UseMvcWithDefaultRoute();}

UseOpenIdConnectAuthentication配置中的Authority,就是 OpenID 认证服务的 URL。

添加一个HomeController

public class HomeController : Controller{    public IActionResult Index()    {        return View();    }    [Authorize]    public IActionResult Secure()    {        ViewData["Message"] = "Secure page.";        return View();    }    public async Task Logout()    {        await HttpContext.Authentication.SignOutAsync("Cookies");        await HttpContext.Authentication.SignOutAsync("oidc");    }    public IActionResult Error()    {        return View();    }}

访问 Secure 页面,跳转到认证服务地址,进行账号密码登录,Logout 用于用户的注销操作。

4.3 Web 测试

5. 简化模式-With OpenID & OAuth(JS 客户端调用)

简单概述:客户端确定 URL(用户认证服务),登录在用户认证服务,验证成功,返回客户端想要的用户数据 和 access_token,并使此用户为登录状态,可以在客户端进行注销用户,客户端可以拿到 access_token,去访问授权范围之内的 API 资源。

需要注意的是:因为简化模式,所以 access_token 是作为 URL 参数返回的。

5.1 认证授权服务配置

创建 ASP.NET Core 站点,Startup 配置修改如下:

public class Startup{    public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)    {        // configure identity server with in-memory stores, keys, clients and scopes        services.AddIdentityServer()            .AddTemporarySigningCredential()            .AddInMemoryIdentityResources(new List<IdentityResource>            {                new IdentityResources.OpenId(),                new IdentityResources.Profile(),            })            .AddInMemoryApiResources(new List<ApiResource>            {                new ApiResource("api1", "My API")            })            .AddInMemoryClients(new List<Client>            {                // OpenID Connect implicit flow client (MVC)                new Client                {                    ClientId = "js",                    ClientName = "JavaScript Client",                    AllowedGrantTypes = GrantTypes.Implicit,                    AllowAccessTokensViaBrowser = true,                    RedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5022/callback.html" },                    PostLogoutRedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5022/index.html" },                    AllowedCorsOrigins = { "http://localhost:5022" },                    AllowedScopes =                    {                        IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.OpenId,                        IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.Profile,                        "api1"                    }                }            })            .AddTestUsers(new List<TestUser>            {                new TestUser                {                    SubjectId = "1",                    Username = "xishuai",                    Password = "123",                    Claims = new List<Claim>                    {                        new Claim("name", "xishuai"),                        new Claim("website", "http://xishuai.cnblogs.com")                    }                }            });    }    public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)    {        loggerFactory.AddConsole(LogLevel.Debug);        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();        app.UseIdentityServer();    }}

因为涉及到访问 API 资源操作,需要需要添加AddInMemoryApiResources配置,AllowedScopes也需要添加对应的 API 资源名称,AllowAccessTokensViaBrowser = true的配置的作用就是,可以在浏览器地址中访问 access_token。

更多实现代码,点击查看:ImplicitServerWithJS.Web

5.2 API 资源服务配置

API 资源服务站点,需要添加程序包:

"IdentityServer4.AccessTokenValidation": "1.0.1","Microsoft.AspNetCore.Cors": "1.1.0"

Startup 配置修改如下:

public Startup(IHostingEnvironment env){    var builder = new ConfigurationBuilder()        .SetBasePath(env.ContentRootPath)        .AddJsonFile("appsettings.json", optional: true, reloadOnChange: true)        .AddJsonFile($"appsettings.{env.EnvironmentName}.json", optional: true);    builder.AddEnvironmentVariables();    Configuration = builder.Build();}public IConfigurationRoot Configuration { get; }public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services){    services.AddCors(options =>    {        // this defines a CORS policy called "default"        options.AddPolicy("default", policy =>        {            policy.WithOrigins("http://localhost:5022")                .AllowAnyHeader()                .AllowAnyMethod();        });    });    services.AddMvcCore()        .AddAuthorization()        .AddJsonFormatters();}public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory){    loggerFactory.AddConsole(Configuration.GetSection("Logging"));    loggerFactory.AddDebug();    app.UseCors("default");    app.UseIdentityServerAuthentication(new IdentityServerAuthenticationOptions    {        Authority = "http://localhost:5003",        RequireHttpsMetadata = false,        ApiName = "api1"    });    app.UseMvc();}

因为 JS 需要跨域访问 API 资源服务,所以需要增加 CORS 配置。

添加一个IdentityController

[Route("[controller]")][Authorize]public class IdentityController : ControllerBase{    [HttpGet]    public IActionResult Get()    {        return new JsonResult(from c in User.Claims select new { c.Type, c.Value });    }}

5.3 JS Web 站点测试

创建一个 ASP.NET Core 站点,添加oidc-client.js前端组件,测试 JS 代码:

/// <reference path="oidc-client.js" />function log() {    document.getElementById('results').innerText = '';    Array.prototype.forEach.call(arguments, function (msg) {        if (msg instanceof Error) {            msg = "Error: " + msg.message;        }        else if (typeof msg !== 'string') {            msg = JSON.stringify(msg, null, 2);        }        document.getElementById('results').innerHTML += msg + '/r/n';    });}document.getElementById("login").addEventListener("click", login, false);document.getElementById("api").addEventListener("click", api, false);document.getElementById("logout").addEventListener("click", logout, false);var config = {    authority: "http://localhost:5003",    client_id: "js",    redirect_uri: "http://localhost:5022/callback.html",    response_type: "id_token token",    scope:"openid profile api1",    post_logout_redirect_uri: "http://localhost:5022/index.html",};var mgr = new Oidc.UserManager(config);mgr.getUser().then(function (user) {    if (user) {        log("User logged in", user.profile);    }    else {        log("User not logged in");    }});function login() {    mgr.signinRedirect();}function api() {    mgr.getUser().then(function (user) {        var url = "http://localhost:5012/identity";        var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();        xhr.open("GET", url);        xhr.onload = function () {            log(xhr.status, JSON.parse(xhr.responseText));        }        xhr.setRequestHeader("Authorization", "Bearer " + user.access_token);        xhr.send();    });}function logout() {    mgr.signoutRedirect();}

测试过程(注意下 URL 中的参数):

6. 混合模式-With OpenID & OAuth(Hybrid Flow)

混合模式(Hybrid Flow)是一种新的模式,是简化模式(implicit flow)和验证码模式(authorization code flow)的混合。

简单概述:客户端确定 URL(用户认证服务),登录在用户认证服务,验证成功,返回客户端想要的用户数据 和 access_token,并使此用户为登录状态,可以在客户端进行注销用户,客户端可以拿到 access_token,去访问授权范围之内的 API 资源。

和上面的简化模式流程差不多,不过 access_token 不是通过浏览器获取的,而是通过后台服务获取。

6.1 认证授权服务配置

创建 ASP.NET Core 站点,Startup 配置修改如下:

public class Startup{    public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)    {        // configure identity server with in-memory stores, keys, clients and scopes        services.AddIdentityServer()            .AddTemporarySigningCredential()            .AddInMemoryIdentityResources(new List<IdentityResource>            {                new IdentityResources.OpenId(),                new IdentityResources.Profile(),            })            .AddInMemoryApiResources(new List<ApiResource>            {                new ApiResource("api1", "My API")            })            .AddInMemoryClients(new List<Client>            {                // OpenID Connect implicit flow client (MVC)                new Client                {                    ClientId = "mvc",                    ClientName = "MVC Client",                    AllowedGrantTypes = GrantTypes.HybridAndClientCredentials,                    ClientSecrets =                    {                        new Secret("secret".Sha256())                    },                    RedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5021/signin-oidc" },                    PostLogoutRedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5021" },                    AllowedScopes =                    {                        IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.OpenId,                        IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.Profile,                        "api1"                    },                    AllowOfflineAccess = true                }            })            .AddTestUsers(new List<TestUser>            {                new TestUser                {                    SubjectId = "1",                    Username = "xishuai",                    Password = "123",                    Claims = new List<Claim>                    {                        new Claim("name", "xishuai"),                        new Claim("website", "http://xishuai.cnblogs.com")                    }                }            });    }    public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)    {        loggerFactory.AddConsole(LogLevel.Debug);        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();        app.UseIdentityServer();    }}

AllowedGrantTypes配置改为HybridAndClientCredentialsAllowOfflineAccess需要设置为true

更多实现代码,点击查看:HybridServer.Web

6.2 API 资源服务配置

API 资源服务站点,需要添加程序包:

"IdentityServer4.AccessTokenValidation": "1.0.1"

Startup 配置修改如下:

public Startup(IHostingEnvironment env){    var builder = new ConfigurationBuilder()        .SetBasePath(env.ContentRootPath)        .AddJsonFile("appsettings.json", optional: true, reloadOnChange: true)        .AddJsonFile($"appsettings.{env.EnvironmentName}.json", optional: true);    builder.AddEnvironmentVariables();    Configuration = builder.Build();}public IConfigurationRoot Configuration { get; }public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services){    services.AddMvcCore()        .AddAuthorization()        .AddJsonFormatters();}public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory){    loggerFactory.AddConsole(Configuration.GetSection("Logging"));    loggerFactory.AddDebug();    app.UseIdentityServerAuthentication(new IdentityServerAuthenticationOptions    {        Authority = "http://localhost:5002",        RequireHttpsMetadata = false,        ApiName = "api1"    });    app.UseMvc();}

添加一个IdentityController

[Route("[controller]")][Authorize]public class IdentityController : ControllerBase{    [HttpGet]    public IActionResult Get()    {        return new JsonResult(from c in User.Claims select new { c.Type, c.Value });    }}

6.3 客户端服务配置

创建 ASP.NET Core 站点,添加程序包:

"Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.Cookies": "1.0.*","Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.OpenIdConnect": "1.0.*","IdentityModel": "2.0.0"

Startup 配置修改如下:

public Startup(IHostingEnvironment env){    var builder = new ConfigurationBuilder()        .SetBasePath(env.ContentRootPath)        .AddJsonFile("appsettings.json", optional: true, reloadOnChange: true)        .AddJsonFile($"appsettings.{env.EnvironmentName}.json", optional: true)        .AddEnvironmentVariables();    Configuration = builder.Build();}public IConfigurationRoot Configuration { get; }public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services){    services.AddMvc();}public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory){    JwtSecurityTokenHandler.DefaultInboundClaimTypeMap.Clear();    loggerFactory.AddConsole(Configuration.GetSection("Logging"));    loggerFactory.AddDebug();    if (env.IsDevelopment())    {        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();    }    else    {        app.UseExceptionHandler("/Home/Error");    }    app.UseCookieAuthentication(new CookieAuthenticationOptions    {        AuthenticationScheme = "Cookies"    });    app.UseOpenIdConnectAuthentication(new OpenIdConnectOptions    {        AuthenticationScheme = "oidc",        SignInScheme = "Cookies",        Authority = "http://localhost:5002",        RequireHttpsMetadata = false,        ClientId = "mvc",        ClientSecret = "secret",        ResponseType = "code id_token",        Scope = { "api1", "offline_access" },        GetClaimsFromUserInfoEndpoint = true,        SaveTokens = true    });    app.UseStaticFiles();    app.UseMvcWithDefaultRoute();}

添加一个HomeController

public class HomeController : Controller{    public IActionResult Index()    {        return View();    }    [Authorize]    public IActionResult Secure()    {        ViewData["Message"] = "Secure page.";        return View();    }    public async Task Logout()    {        await HttpContext.Authentication.SignOutAsync("Cookies");        await HttpContext.Authentication.SignOutAsync("oidc");    }    public IActionResult Error()    {        return View();    }    public async Task<IActionResult> CallApiUsingClientCredentials()    {        var tokenClient = new TokenClient("http://localhost:5002/connect/token", "mvc", "secret");        var tokenResponse = await tokenClient.RequestClientCredentialsAsync("api1");        var client = new HttpClient();        client.SetBearerToken(tokenResponse.AccessToken);        var content = await client.GetStringAsync("http://localhost:5011/identity");        ViewBag.Json = JArray.Parse(content).ToString();        return View("json");    }    public async Task<IActionResult> CallApiUsingUserAccessToken()    {        var accessToken = await HttpContext.Authentication.GetTokenAsync("access_token");        var client = new HttpClient();        client.SetBearerToken(accessToken);        var content = await client.GetStringAsync("http://localhost:5011/identity");        ViewBag.Json = JArray.Parse(content).ToString();        return Content("json");    }}

CallApiUsingClientCredentials是通过客户端模式获取 access_token,CallApiUsingUserAccessToken是通过上下文获取保存的 access_token,其实和浏览器 URL 中获取是一样的意思,但需要配置SaveTokens = true

6.4 Web 测试

7. ASP.NET Core Identity and Using EntityFramework Core for configuration data

使用 ASP.NET Core Identity,就是用户管理不由 OpenID 认证服务进行提供,ASP.NET Core Identity 就相当于用户的一个管理者,比如用户的存储等。

我没做这一块的示例,配置比较简单:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services){    services.AddDbContext<ApplicationDbContext>(options =>        options.UseSqlServer(Configuration.GetConnectionString("DefaultConnection")));    services.AddIdentity<ApplicationUser, IdentityRole>()        .AddEntityFrameworkStores<ApplicationDbContext>()        .AddDefaultTokenProviders();    services.AddMvc();    services.AddTransient<IEmailSender, AuthMessageSender>();    services.AddTransient<ISmsSender, AuthMessageSender>();    // Adds IdentityServer    services.AddIdentityServer()        .AddTemporarySigningCredential()        .AddInMemoryIdentityResources(Config.GetIdentityResources())        .AddInMemoryApiResources(Config.GetApiResources())        .AddInMemoryClients(Config.GetClients())        .AddAspNetIdentity<ApplicationUser>();}

详细使用:Using ASP.NET Core Identity

关于 IdentityServer4 的配置信息,可以使用 EntityFramework Core 进行存储,配置如下:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services){    services.AddMvc();    var connectionString = @"server=(localdb)/mssqllocaldb;database=IdentityServer4.Quickstart;trusted_connection=yes";    var migrationsAssembly = typeof(Startup).GetTypeInfo().Assembly.GetName().Name;    // configure identity server with in-memory users, but EF stores for clients and resources    services.AddIdentityServer()        .AddTemporarySigningCredential()        .AddTestUsers(Config.GetUsers())        .AddConfigurationStore(builder =>            builder.UseSqlServer(connectionString, options =>                options.MigrationsAssembly(migrationsAssembly)))        .AddOperationalStore(builder =>            builder.UseSqlServer(connectionString, options =>                options.MigrationsAssembly(migrationsAssembly)));}

详细使用:Using EntityFramework Core for configuration data


最后,简要总结下使用 IdentityServer4 的几种应用场景:

  • 客户端模式(Client Credentials):和用户无关,用于应用程序与 API 资源的直接交互场景。
  • 密码模式(resource owner password credentials):和用户有关,一般用于第三方登录。
  • 简化模式-With OpenID(implicit grant type):仅限 OpenID 认证服务,用于第三方用户登录及获取用户信息,不包含授权。
  • 简化模式-With OpenID & OAuth(JS 客户端调用):包含 OpenID 认证服务和 OAuth 授权,但只针对 JS 调用(URL 参数获取),一般用于前端或无线端。
  • 混合模式-With OpenID & OAuth(Hybrid Flow):推荐使用,包含 OpenID 认证服务和 OAuth 授权,但针对的是后端服务调用。

开源地址:https://github.com/yuezhongxin/IdentityServer4.Demo

参考资料:

  • IdentityServer4
  • IdentityServer4.Samples
  • Welcome to IdentityServer4
  • Welcome to OpenID Connect
  • OpenID 学习笔记
  • OAuth 和 OpenID 的区别
  • OAuth、OAuth 与 OpenID 区别和联系
  • 使用 OpenID、OAuth 和 Facebook Connect 武装你的站点
  • OpenID Connect 身份认证标准推出,获谷歌微软支持
    

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