Asp.net Core Quickstart

2018-02-01 18:35:50来源:cnblogs.com作者:defa人点击

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Asp.Net Core 是开源,跨平台,模块化,快速而简单的Web框架.

Asp.net Core官网的一个合集,方便一次性Clone

目录

  • 快速入门
  • 安装
  • 一个最小的应用
  • 项目模板
  • 路由
  • 静态文件
  • 页面渲染
  • 请求
  • 错误和重定向
  • 关于响应
  • 会话
  • 日志
  • 配置
  • 国际化

持续更新,也可以通过我的网站访问,欢迎探讨交流

快速入门

安装

下载安装 .NET SDK

查看dotnet sdk 版本

$ dotnet --version`2.1.4

创建项目目录

$ mkdir study$ cd study

使用 dotnet new 命令创建项目

$ dotnet new console -n Demo$ cd Demo

在 VS Code中打开Demo文件夹

一个最小的应用

打开 Program.cs

using System;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;namespace Demo{    class Program    {        static void Main(string[] args)        {            var host = new WebHostBuilder()                .UseKestrel()                .UseStartup<Startup>()                .Build();            host.Run();        }    }        class Startup    {        public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app)        {            app.Run(async context =>            {                await context.Response.WriteAsync("Hello, World!");            });        }    }}

安装相关的Nuget包

$ dotnet add package Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting --version 2.0.1$ dotnet add package Microsoft.AspNetCore.Server.Kestrel --version 2.0.1

下载依赖项

$ dotnet restore

运行

$ dotnet run

输出结果:

Hosting environment: ProductionContent root path: C:/netcore/study/Demo/bin/Debug/netcoreapp2.0/Now listening on: http://localhost:5000Application started. Press Ctrl+C to shut down.

项目模板

根据指定的模板,创建新的项目、配置文件或解决方案。

$ dotnet new -h使用情况: new [选项]选项:  -h, --help          显示有关此命令的帮助。  -l, --list          列出包含指定名称的模板。如果未指定名称,请列出所有模板。  -n, --name          正在创建输出的名称。如果未指定任何名称,将使用当前目录的名                                                                                                                                                                                               称。  -o, --output        要放置生成的输出的位置。  -i, --install       安装源或模板包。  -u, --uninstall     卸载一个源或模板包。  --type              基于可用的类型筛选模板。预定义的值为 "project"、"item" 或                                                                                                                                                                                                "other"。  --force             强制生成内容,即使该内容会更改现有文件。  -lang, --language   指定要创建的模板的语言。模板                                                短名称              语言                                                                                                                                                                                                               标记--------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                                                                                                                                               ------------------------Console Application                               console          [C#], F#, VB                                                                                                                                                                                                     Common/ConsoleClass library                                     classlib         [C#], F#, VB                                                                                                                                                                                                     Common/LibraryUnit Test Project                                 mstest           [C#], F#, VB                                                                                                                                                                                                     Test/MSTestxUnit Test Project                                xunit            [C#], F#, VB                                                                                                                                                                                                     Test/xUnitASP.NET Core Empty                                web              [C#], F#                                                                                                                                                                                                         Web/EmptyASP.NET Core Web App (Model-View-Controller)      mvc              [C#], F#                                                                                                                                                                                                         Web/MVCASP.NET Core Web App                              razor            [C#]                                                                                                                                                                                                             Web/MVC/Razor PagesASP.NET Core with Angular                         angular          [C#]                                                                                                                                                                                                             Web/MVC/SPAASP.NET Core with React.js                        react            [C#]                                                                                                                                                                                                             Web/MVC/SPAASP.NET Core with React.js and Redux              reactredux       [C#]                                                                                                                                                                                                             Web/MVC/SPAASP.NET Core Web API                              webapi           [C#], F#                                                                                                                                                                                                         Web/WebAPIglobal.json file                                  globaljson                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ConfigNuGet Config                                      nugetconfig                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ConfigWeb Config                                        webconfig                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ConfigSolution File                                     sln                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SolutionRazor Page                                        page                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Web/ASP.NETMVC ViewImports                                   viewimports                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Web/ASP.NETMVC ViewStart                                     viewstart                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Web/ASP.NETExamples:    dotnet new mvc --auth Individual    dotnet new page --namespace    dotnet new --help

使用dotnet new 选择 console 模板 创建项目

$ dotnet new console -n Demo$ cd Demo

创建后的项目文档结构是

.├── Demo│   ├── Demo.csproj│   └── Program.cs

路由

启用,配置路由

using System;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Routing;using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;namespace Demo {    class Startup {        public void ConfigureServices (IServiceCollection services) {            //启用路由            services.AddRouting ();        }        public void Configure (IApplicationBuilder app) {            //配置路由            app.UseRouter (routes => {                //根路由 (/)                routes.MapGet("", context =>                {                    return context.Response.WriteAsync("Hello, World!");                });                //在根路由 (/) 上,配置 /hello Get请求的路由                routes.MapGet ("hello", context => {                    return context.Response.WriteAsync ("Got a Get request at /hello");                });            });        }    }}

安装相关的Nuget包

$ dotnet add package Microsoft.AspNetCore.Routing --version 2.0.1

下载依赖项

$ dotnet restore

运行

$ dotnet run

访问 http://localhost:5000/hello ,输出结果:

Got a Get request at /hello

对 /user 路由的 POST 请求进行响应:

routes.MapPost("hello", context => {    return context.Response.WriteAsync ("Got a Post request at /hello");})

对 /user 路由的 PUT 请求进行响应:

routes.MapPut("hello", context => {    return context.Response.WriteAsync ("Got a Put request at /hello");})

对 /user 路由的 DELETE 请求进行响应:

routes.MapDelete("hello", context => {    return context.Response.WriteAsync ("Got a Dlete request at /hello");})

静态文件

启用,配置静态资源

创建 wwwroot文件夹

$ mkdir wwwroot$ cd wwwroot

复制 index.html 到 wwwroot目录

$ mkdir images$ cd images

复制 favicon.png 到 images文件夹下

项目结构图如下:.├── Demo│   ├── wwwroot│   │   ├── images│   │   │   ├── favicon.png│   │   ├── index.html│   ├── Demo.csproj│   └── Program.cs

更改 Program.cs,设置ContentRoot路径为当前项目根目录,启用静态资源

using System;using System.IO;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Routing;using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;namespace Demo {    class Program {        static void Main (string[] args) {            Console.WriteLine (AppContext.BaseDirectory);            var host = new WebHostBuilder ()                .UseKestrel ()                //设置 ContentRoot, ContentRoot是任何资源的根路径,比如页面和静态资源                .UseContentRoot(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory())                .UseStartup<Startup>()                .Build ();            host.Run ();        }    }    class Startup {        public void Configure (IApplicationBuilder app) {            //使用静态资源,默认的目录是 /wwwroot            app.UseStaticFiles ();        }    }}

运行

http://localhost:5000/index.html

http://localhost:5000/images/favicon.png

配置其他文件夹

新建文件夹myfiles

$ mkdir myfiles$ cd myfiles

创建一个新的 index.html到myfiles文件夹,配置并使用myfiles文件夹

app.UseStaticFiles (new StaticFileOptions {    FileProvider = new PhysicalFileProvider (            Path.Combine (Directory.GetCurrentDirectory (), "myfiles")),        RequestPath = "/myfiles"});

运行

http://localhost:5000/myfiles/index.html

页面渲染

Razor模板引擎

Asp.net Core自带的模板引擎是 Razor模板引擎,传统的Razor页面以cshtml结尾, 阅读Razor语法
遗憾的是Razor模板引擎在Asp.net Core中封装在了MVC模块之中,需要做一些扩展才可以单独拿出来使用

创建模板页面

创建 views文件夹

$ mkdir views$ cd views

创建 index.cshtml 页面

<!DOCTYPE html><html><head>    <meta charset="utf-8" /></head><body>    <ul>        @for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)        {            <li>第@(i + 1)行</li>        }    </ul></body></html>

使用模板

using System;using System.IO;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Routing;using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;namespace Demo{    class Program    {        static void Main(string[] args)        {            Console.WriteLine(AppContext.BaseDirectory);            var host = new WebHostBuilder()                .UseKestrel()                .UseContentRoot(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory())                .UseStartup<Startup>()                .Build();            host.Run();        }    }    class Startup    {        public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)        {            //启用Mvc            services.AddMvc();            //扩展类            services.AddSingleton<RazorViewRenderer>();        }        public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app)        {            app.UseRouter(routes =>            {                //根路径 /                routes.MapGet("", context =>                {                    return context.Render("/views/index.cshtml");                }            });        }    }}

安装相关的Nuget包

$ dotnet add package Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc --version 2.0.2

下载依赖项

$ dotnet restore

运行

$ dotnet run

结果

第1行第2行第3行第4行第5行

渲染数据

新增实体类 UserInfo

public class UserInfo{    public string Name { get; set; }    public int Age { get; set; }}

新增user.cshtml页面

@using Demo;@model UserInfo<!DOCTYPE html><html><head>    <meta charset="utf-8" /></head><body>    <ul>        <li>姓名:@Model.Name</li>        <li>年龄:@Model.Age</li>    </ul></body></html>

更改Program.cs

app.UseRouter(routes =>{    //根路径 /    routes.MapGet("", context =>    {        return context.Render("/views/index.cshtml");    }    routes.MapGet("/user", context =>    {        return context.Render("/views/user.cshtml", new UserInfo() { Name = "张三", Age = 18 });    });});

运行

$ dotnet run

结果

姓名:张三年龄:18

请求数据

QueryString

var queryCollection = context.Request.Query;foreach (var item in queryCollection){    Console.WriteLine(item.Key + ":" + item.Value);}

Form

if (context.Request.ContentType.ToLower().Contains("application/x-www-form-urlencoded"){    var formCollection = context.Request.Form;    foreach (var item in formCollection)    {        Console.WriteLine(item.Key + ":" + item.Value);    }}

Files

var fileCollections = context.Request.Form.Files;var rootPath = context.RequestServices.GetService<IHostingEnvironment>().ContentRootPath;foreach (var item in fileCollections){        var path = Path.Combine(rootPath,item.FileNa    using (var stream = new FileStream(path, FileMode.Create))    {        await item.CopyToAsync(stream);    }    Console.WriteLine(item.FileName + ":" + item.Length);}
var headerCollection = context.Request.Headers;foreach (var item in headerCollection){    Console.WriteLine(item.Key + ":" + item.Value);}

Body

StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(context.Request.Body);string text = reader.ReadToEnd();

Cookies

var cookieCollection=context.Request.Cookies;foreach (var item in cookieCollection){    Console.WriteLine(item.Key + ":" + item.Value);}

错误和重定向

重定向

context.Response.Redirect("path")

状态代码页

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Diagnostics;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Routing;using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;using System;using System.IO;using System.Text.Encodings.Web;namespace Demo{    class Program    {        static void Main(string[] args)        {            Console.WriteLine(AppContext.BaseDirectory);            var host = new WebHostBuilder()                .UseKestrel()                .UseContentRoot(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory())                .UseStartup<Startup>()                .Build();            host.Run();        }    }    class Startup    {        public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)        {            //启用路由            services.AddRouting();            services.AddMvc();            services.AddSingleton<RazorViewRenderer>();        }        public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env)        {            //启用状态码页            app.UseStatusCodePages();            app.UseRouter(routes =>            {                //根路径 /                routes.MapGet("", context =>                {                    return context.Render("/views/index.cshtml");                }            });        }    }}

自定义状态码页

新增 404.cshtml

<!DOCTYPE html><html><head>    <meta charset="utf-8" /></head><body>    <h1> Oops! Page Not Found ! </h1></body></html>

配置和使用自定义的状态码页

app.UseStatusCodePagesWithRedirects("/status/{0}");app.UseRouter(routes =>{    //""    routes.MapGet("", context =>    {        return context.Response.WriteAsync("root path");    });    routes.MapGet("status/{code}", (request, response, routeData) =>    {        var statusCodePagesFeature = request.HttpContext.Features.Get<IStatusCodePagesFeature>();        var code = routeData.Values["code"];        if (statusCodePagesFeature != null && code!=null && code.ToString() == "404")        {            //跳转到自定义的404页面            return request.HttpContext.Render("/views/404.cshtml");        }        else        {            return response.WriteAsync(HtmlEncoder.Default.Encode("状态码:"+ routeData.Values["code"]));        }    });});

异常错误页

开发异常页面,Asp.net Core自带

app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();

新增测试路由,抛出空指针异常

env.EnvironmentName = EnvironmentName.Development;if (env.IsDevelopment()){    app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();}else{    app.UseExceptionHandler("/error");}app.UseRouter(routes =>{    //""    routes.MapGet("", context =>    {        return context.Response.WriteAsync("root path");    }    //test    routes.MapGet("test", context =>    {        throw new Exception("空指针异常!!!");    });});

访问http://localhost:57393/test,得到下面的页面
nullexception

自定义异常页面

env.EnvironmentName = EnvironmentName.Production;if (env.IsDevelopment()){    app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();}else{    //自定义异常错误页面    app.UseExceptionHandler("/error");}app.UseRouter(routes =>{    //""    routes.MapGet("", context =>    {        return context.Response.WriteAsync("root path");    }    //test    routes.MapGet("test", context =>    {        throw new Exception("空指针异常!!!");    });        //自定义异常错误页面    routes.MapGet("error", context =>    {        context.Response.StatusCode = 500;        context.Response.ContentType = "text/html";        var error = context.Features.Get<IExceptionHandlerFeature>();        if (error != null)        {            return context.Response.WriteAsync("<h1>" + HtmlEncoder.Default.Encode("发生了错误: " + error.Error.Messa + "</h1>");        }        else        {            return context.Response.WriteAsync("<h1>" + HtmlEncoder.Default.Encode("Oops! 发生了错误,请联系管理员")"</h1>");        }    });});

关于响应

会话

Session

新增登陆页面login.cshtml

<!DOCTYPE html><html><head>    <meta charset="utf-8" /></head><body>    <form action="/login" method="post">        <div>            <label>用户名:</label>            <input  type="text" name="UserName" />        </div>        <div>            <label>密码:</label>            <input type="password" name="PassWord" />        </div>        <div>            <input type="submit" value="登陆" />        </div>    </form></body></html>

添加并启用Session,输入用户名和密码,点击登陆,保持Session数据,登陆成功跳转到/home路由页面,访问Session数据,显示当前登陆的用户名

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Routing;using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;using System;using System.IO;using System.Threading.Tasks;namespace Demo{    class Program    {        static void Main(string[] args)        {            Console.WriteLine(AppContext.BaseDirectory);            var host = new WebHostBuilder()                .UseKestrel()                .UseContentRoot(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory())                .UseStartup<Startup>()                .Build();            host.Run();        }    }    class Startup    {        public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)        {            //启用路由            services.AddRouting();            services.AddMvc();            services.AddSingleton<RazorViewRenderer>();            //增加Session            services.AddSession();        }        public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env)        {            app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();            // 启用Session            app.UseSession();            app.UseRouter(routes =>            {                routes.MapGet("", (request, response, routeData) =>                {                    return request.HttpContext.Render("/views/login.cshtml");                });                routes.MapGet("home", context =>                {                    string userName = context.Session.GetString("userName");                    if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(userName))                    {                        return context.Response.WriteAsync("User:" + userName);                    }                    else                    {                        context.Response.Redirect("/");                        return Task.CompletedTask;                    }                });                routes.MapPost("login", context =>                {                    var userName = context.Request.Form["UserName"].ToString();                    var password = context.Request.Form["PassWord"].ToString();                    if (userName.Equals("admin") && password.Equals("123456"))                    {                        context.Session.SetString("userName", password);                        context.Response.Redirect("/home");                        return Task.CompletedTask;                    }                    else                    {                        throw new Exception("用户名或密码错误");                    }                });            });        }    }}

日志

安装Nuget包

$ dotnet add package Microsoft.Extensions.Logging --version 2.0.0$ dotnet add package Microsoft.Extensions.Logging.Console --version 2.0.0

下载依赖项

$ dotnet restore

添加日志模块

//启用日志services.AddLogging(builder=> {    //使用控制台日志提供程序    builder.AddConsole();});

创建ILogger实例

var logger = context.RequestServices.GetService<ILogger<Startup>> ();//记录日志logger.LogInformation("before hello world");

日志分类

日志的类别,可以是任意字符串,默认是完全限定的类名,例如: Demo.Startup

日志级别

logger.LogTrace();logger.LogDebug();logger.LogInformation();logger.LogWarning();logger.LogError();logger.LogCritical();

日志过滤

给日志分类为 Demo.Startup的日志类别限定最小的日志级别是LogLevel.Information

services.AddLogging(builder=> {    builder.AddFilter("Demo.Startup", LogLevel.Information);    builder.AddConsole();});

访问更多关于日志类别,级别,模板,过滤,作用域的说明日志类别

配置

  • 添加配置
    ```c#
    using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder;
    using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;
    using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;
    using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Routing;
    using Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration;
    using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;
    using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging;
    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.IO;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace Demo
{
class Program
{
static void Main(string[] args)
{
var configBuilder = new ConfigurationBuilder();
configBuilder.AddInMemoryCollection(new Dictionary

        var host = new WebHostBuilder()            .UseKestrel()            .UseContentRoot(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory())            .UseConfiguration(config)            .UseStartup<Startup>()            .Build();        host.Run();    }}

}
-- 读取配置c#
app.UseRouter(routes =>
{
routes.MapGet("", context =>
{
var config = context.RequestServices.GetService

## 国际化-- 添加依赖的Nuget包

$ dotnet add package Microsoft.Extensions.Localization --version 2.0.1

下载依赖项

$ dotnet restore
```

资源文件命名规则

命名规则 {分类名称}.{语言区域名称}.resx

  • 分类名称:默认的分类名称就是类型的FullName,在AssemblyName后的相对路径,比如Demo.Startup,程序集的名称Demo,就剩下了Startup
  • 语言区域名称: 语言区域名称有zh-CN,en-US,更多

特殊条件下你也可以将资源文件和类定义文件放在同一个目录,这样资源文件的分类名称就是{类名称}.{语言区域名称}.resx

添加资源文件

  • 新建 myresources文件夹
  • 新建 Startup.en-US.resx 新增项 name是sayhi,value是 HelloWorld
  • 新建 Startup.zh-CN.resx 新增项 name是sayhi,value是 世界你好

    添加本地化

    services.AddLocalization(options =>options.ResourcesPath = "myresources";});

    启用本地化

    var cultureList = new List<CultureInfo>() {     new CultureInfo("en-US"),     new CultureInfo("zh-CN")};var options = new RequestLocalizationOptions(){SupportedCultures = cultureList,SupportedUICultures = cultureList,DefaultRequestCulture = new RequestCulture("zh-CN")};//新建基于Query String的多语言提供程序var provider = new QueryStringRequestCultureProvider();provider.QueryStringKey = "culture";provider.UIQueryStringKey = "uiculture";//删除所有多语言提供程序options.RequestCultureProviders.Clear();options.RequestCultureProviders.Add(provider);

    资源文件读取

    var stringLocalizer = context.RequestServices.GetService<IStringLocalizer<Startup>>();string sayhi = stringLocalizer["sayhi"];

    访问 http://localhost:57393/?culture=en-US 切换为英文版本,默认的语言是中文

    多语言提供程序

  • 通过Query String,[默认自带]
  • 通过Cookie,[默认自带]
  • 通过Accept-Language header,[默认自带]
  • 通过RouteData

    模板格式化

    string username="张三";string localizedString = _localizer["Hello {0}!", username];

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