干货-Oracle里的常用命令

2018-03-01 10:58:55来源:oschina作者:软件测试网人点击

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  本文转自:51Testing软件测试网。(http://www.51testing.com/html/27/n-7827.html)第一章:日志管理  1.forcing log switches   sql> alter system switch logfile;  2.forcing checkpoints   sql> alter system checkpoint;  3.adding online redo log groups   sql> alter database add logfile [group 4]   sql> ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m;  4.adding online redo log members   sql> alter database add logfile member   sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1,   sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2;  5.changes the name of the online redo logfile   sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log'   sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';  6.drop online redo log groups   sql> alter database drop logfile group 3;  7.drop online redo log members   sql> alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';  8.clearing online redo log files   sql> alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo';  9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles  a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' '   b. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('oradb.ora','c:/oracle/oradb/log');   c. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log',   sql> dbms_logmnr.new);   d. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo02.log',   sql> dbms_logmnr.addfile);   e. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:/oracle/oradb/log/oradb.ora');   f. sql> select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters   sql> v$logmnr_logs);   g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr;  第二章:表空间管理  1.create tablespaces   sql> create tablespace tablespace_name datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/file1.dbf' size 100m,   sql> 'c:/oracle/oradata/file2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging]   sql> default storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0)   sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause]  2.locally managed tablespace   sql> create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/user_data01.dbf'   sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;  3.temporary tablespace   sql> create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:/oracle/oradata/temp01.dbf'   sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;  4.change the storage setting   sql> alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m;   sql> alter tablespace app_data default storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999);  5.taking tablespace offline or online   sql> alter tablespace app_data offline;   sql> alter tablespace app_data online;  6.read_only tablespace   sql> alter tablespace app_data read only|write;  7.droping tablespace   sql> drop tablespace app_data including contents;  8.enableing automatic extension of data files   sql> alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data01.dbf' size 200m   sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m;  9.change the size fo data files manually   sql> alter database datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data.dbf' resize 200m;  10.Moving data files: alter tablespace   sql> alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data.dbf'   sql> to 'c:/oracle/app_data.dbf';  11.moving data files:alter database   sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data.dbf'   sql> to 'c:/oracle/app_data.dbf';  第三章:表  1.create a table   sql> create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....)   sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer]   sql> [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]   sql> storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50)   sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache]  2.copy an existing table   sql> create table table_name [logging|nologging] as subquery  3.create temporary table   sql> create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay;   on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows  4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size   pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space)  5.change storage and block utilization parameter   sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k   sql> minextents 2 maxextents 100);  6.manually allocating extents   sql> alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf');  7.move tablespace   sql> alter table employee move tablespace users;  8.deallocate of unused space   sql> alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer]  9.truncate a table   sql> truncate table table_name;  10.drop a table   sql> drop table table_name [cascade constraints];  11.drop a column   sql> alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000;   alter table table_name drop columns continue;  12.mark a column as unused   sql> alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints;   alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000;   alter table orders drop columns continue checkpoint 1000   data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs  第四章:索引  1.creating function-based indexes   sql> create index summit.item_quantity on summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped);  2.create a B-tree index   sql> create [unique] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace   sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]   sql> [logging | nologging] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0   sql> maxextents 50);  3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*   100/maximum number of rows  4.creating reverse key indexes   sql> create unique index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k   sql> next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;  5.create bitmap index   sql> create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k   sql> pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;  6.change storage parameter of index   sql> alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100);  7.allocating index space   sql> alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf');  8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused;  第五章:约束  1.define constraints as immediate or deferred   sql> alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/default;   set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred;  2. sql> drop table table_name cascade constraints   sql> drop tablespace tablespace_name including contents cascade constraints  3. define constraints while create a table   sql> create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable   sql> using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx);   primary key/unique/references table(column)/check  4.enable constraints   sql> alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id;  5.enable constraints   sql> alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id;  第六章:LOAD数据  1.loading data using direct_load insert   sql> insert /*+append */ into emp nologging   sql> select * from emp_old;  2.parallel direct-load insert   sql> alter session enable parallel dml;   sql> insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ into emp nologging   sql> select * from emp_old;  3.using sql*loader   sql> sqlldr scott/tiger /   sql> control = ulcase6.ctl /   sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=true  第七章:reorganizing data  1.using expoty   $exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:/emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y  2.using import   $imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y  3.transporting a tablespace   sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only;   $exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts   triggers=n constraints=n   $copy datafile   $imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2   /sles02.dbf)   sql> alter tablespace sales_ts read write;  4.checking transport set   sql> DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>true);   在表transport_set_violations 中查看   sql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 为true 是, 表示自包含  第八章:managing password security and resources  1.controlling account lock and password   sql> alter user juncky identified by oracle account unlock;  2.user_provided password function   sql> function_name(userid in varchar2(30),password in varchar2(30),   old_password in varchar2(30)) return boolean  3.create a profile : password setting   sql> create profile grace_5 limit failed_login_attempts 3   sql> password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30   sql>password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function   sql> password_grace_time 5;  4.altering a profile   sql> alter profile default failed_login_attempts 3   sql> password_life_time 60 password_grace_time 10;  5.drop a profile   sql> drop profile grace_5 [cascade];  6.create a profile : resource limit   sql> create profile developer_prof limit sessions_per_user 2   sql> cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480;  7. view => resource_cost : alter resource cost   dba_Users,dba_profiles  8. enable resource limits   sql> alter system set resource_limit=true;  第九章:Managing users  1.create a user: database authentication   sql> create user juncky identified by oracle default tablespace users   sql> temporary tablespace temp quota 10m on data password expire   sql> [account lock|unlock] [profile profilename|default];  2.change user quota on tablespace   sql> alter user juncky quota 0 on users;  3.drop a user   sql> drop user juncky [cascade];  4. monitor user   view: dba_users , dba_ts_quotas  第十章:managing privileges  1.system privileges: view => system_privilege_map ,dba_sys_privs,session_privs  2.grant system privilege   sql> grant create session,create table to managers;   sql> grant create session to scott with admin option;   with admin option can grant or revoke privilege from any user or role;  3.sysdba and sysoper privileges:   sysoper: startup,shutdown,alter database open|mount,alter database backup controlfile,   alter tablespace begin/end backup,recover database   alter database archivelog,restricted session   sysdba: sysoper privileges with admin option,create database,recover database until  4.password file members: view:=> v$pwfile_users  5.O7_dictionary_accessibility =true restriction access to view or tables in other schema  6.revoke system privilege   sql> revoke create table from karen;   sql> revoke create session from scott;  7.grant object privilege   sql> grant execute on dbms_pipe to public;   sql> grant update(first_name,salary) on employee to karen with grant option;  8.display object privilege : view => dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs  9.revoke object privilege   sql> revoke execute on dbms_pipe from scott [cascade constraints];  10.audit record view :=> sys.aud$  11. protecting the audit trail   sql> audit delete on sys.aud$ by access;  12.statement auditing   sql> audit user;  13.privilege auditing   sql> audit select any table by summit by access;  14.schema object auditing   sql> audit lock on summit.employee by access whenever successful;  15.view audit option : view=> all_def_audit_opts,dba_stmt_audit_opts,   dba_priv_audit_opts,dba_obj_audit_opts  16.view audit result: view=> dba_audit_trail,dba_audit_exists,dba_audit_object,   dba_audit_session,dba_audit_statement  第十一章: manager role  1.create roles   sql> create role sales_clerk;   sql> create role hr_clerk identified by bonus;   sql> create role hr_manager identified externally;  2.modify role   sql> alter role sales_clerk identified by commission;   sql> alter role hr_clerk identified externally;   sql> alter role hr_manager not identified;  3.assigning roles   sql> grant sales_clerk to scott;   sql> grant hr_clerk to hr_manager;   sql> grant hr_manager to scott with admin option;  4.establish default role   sql> alter user scott default role hr_clerk,sales_clerk;   sql> alter user scott default role all;   sql> alter user scott default role all except hr_clerk;   sql> alter user scott default role none;  5.enable and disable roles   sql> set role hr_clerk;   sql> set role sales_clerk identified by commission;   sql> set role all except sales_clerk;   sql> set role none;  6.remove role from user   sql> revoke sales_clerk from scott;   sql> revoke hr_manager from public;  7.remove role   sql> drop role hr_manager;  8.display role information   view: =>dba_roles,dba_role_privs,role_role_privs,dba_sys_privs,   role_sys_privs,role_tab_privs,session_roles  第十二章: BACKUP and RECOVERY  1. v$sga,v$instance,v$process,v$bgprocess,v$database,v$datafile,v$sgastat  2. Rman need set dbwr_IO_slaves or backup_tape_IO_slaves and large_pool_size  3. Monitoring Parallel Rollback   > v$fast_start_servers , v$fast_start_transactions  4.perform a closed database backup (noarchivelog)   > shutdown immediate   > cp files /backup/   > startup  5.restore to a different location   > connect system/manager as sysdba   > startup mount   > alter database rename file '/disk1/../user.dbf' to '/disk2/../user.dbf';   > alter database open;  6.recover syntax   --recover a mounted database   >recover database;   >recover datafile '/disk1/data/df2.dbf';   >alter database recover database;   --recover an opened database   >recover tablespace user_data;   >recover datafile 2;   >alter database recover datafile 2;  7.how to apply redo log files automatically   >set autorecovery on   >recover automatic datafile 4;  8.complete recovery:   --method 1(mounted databae)   >copy c:/backup/user.dbf c:/oradata/user.dbf   >startup mount   >recover datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf;   >alter database open;   --method 2(opened database,initially opened,not system or rollback datafile)   >copy c:/backup/user.dbf c:/oradata/user.dbf (alter tablespace offline)   >recover datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' or   >recover tablespace user_data;   >alter database datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' online or   >alter tablespace user_data online;   --method 3(opened database,initially closed not system or rollback datafile)   >startup mount   >alter database datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' offline;   >alter database open   >copy c:/backup/user.dbf d:/oradata/user.dbf   >alter database rename file 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' to 'd:/oradata/user.dbf'   >recover datafile 'e:/oradata/user.dbf' or recover tablespace user_data;   >alter tablespace user_data online;   --method 4(loss of data file with no backup and have all archive log)   >alter tablespace user_data offline immediate;   >alter database create datafile 'd:/oradata/user.dbf' as 'c:/oradata/user.dbf''   >recover tablespace user_data;   >alter tablespace user_data online   5.perform an open database backup   > alter tablespace user_data begin backup;   > copy files /backup/   > alter database datafile '/c:/../data.dbf' end backup;   > alter system switch logfile;   6.backup a control file   > alter database backup controlfile to 'control1.bkp';   > alter database backup controlfile to trace;   7.recovery (noarchivelog mode)   > shutdown abort   > cp files   > startup   8.recovery of file in backup mode   >alter database datafile 2 end backup;  9.clearing redo log file   >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1;   >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1 unrecoverable datafile;  10.redo log recovery   >alter database add logfile group 3 'c:/oradata/redo03.log' size 1000k;   >alter database drop logfile group 1;   >alter database open;   or >cp c:/oradata/redo02.log' c:/oradata/redo01.log   >alter database clear logfile 'c:/oradata/log01.log';

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