关于SQL Server 数据库归档的一些思考和改进

2019-01-02 14:18:06来源:cnblogs.com作者:东山絮柳仔人点击

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一.需求背景

SQL Server开源的归档工具不多,DBA一般都是通过计划任务来触发执行,执行的脚本多是SP或者是SSIS包。SSIS包的性能稍好一些,但是维护更新成本高些。所以更常见的是通过SP脚本来实现归档操作。

当数据库规模较小时,可以方便的直接在数据库上进行脚本的编写部署。但是随着数据库越来越多,管理维护成本就会越来越大,越来越不方便。现在我们实行的方式是通过中央管理器来管理众多的数据库备份(这是在拥有专门的备份程序前的一个过渡方案)。我们将归档基础配置信息、归档运行历史记录、异常报错等数据统一维护在中央数据库上。如此,可以方便统一的查看、管理和维护。

 二.主要架构

 

三.主要关联表

2.1 归档基础配置表

表字段含义,请耐心查看字段说明。

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[DBData_ArchiveConfig](    [ID] [int] IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,    [IP] [varchar](50) NULL,    [DBName] [varchar](50) NULL,    [DataTable] [varchar](50) NULL,    [TargetIP] [varchar](50) NULL,    [TargetDB] [varchar](50) NULL,    [TargetTable] [varchar](50) NULL,    [Prerequisite] [varchar](300) NULL,    [DelMaxQTY] [int] NULL,    [IsCheckOrderID] [int] NULL,    [SP_Name] [int] NULL,    [StartTime] [datetime] NULL,    [EndTime] [datetime] NULL) ON [PRIMARY]GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'Server IP(数据位于中央管理器中,所以归档数据库库所在的IP要维护,可维修虚拟的IP)' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'IP'GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'要归档的数据库' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'DBName'GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'要归档的表' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'DataTable'GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'备份指向的IP' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'TargetIP'GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'备份指向的数据库' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'TargetDB'GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'备份指向的表' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'TargetTable'GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'归档条件' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'Prerequisite'GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'循环中一次归档删除的数据量' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'DelMaxQTY'GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'此为 备用字段,考虑可能有些表,会和其他表关联' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'IsCheckOrderID'GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'为提高并发度,一个DB对应的归档SP可能是多个,通过此列,进行分组。' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'SP_Name'GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'此为拓展字段,原计划根据 开始时间、结束时间,每天可以多个时间段内执行' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'StartTime'GOEXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty @name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'此为拓展字段,原计划根据 开始时间、结束时间,每天可以多个时间段内执行' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DBData_ArchiveConfig', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'EndTime'GO

2.2 归档运行的Log表

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[DBData_ArchiveLog](    [ID] [int] IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,    [IP] [varchar](30) NULL,    [DBName] [varchar](30) NULL,    [DataTable] [varchar](80) NULL,    [BakQTY] [varchar](30) NULL,    [BakStartDate] [datetime] NULL,    [BakEndDate] [datetime] NULL) ON [PRIMARY]GO

2.3 异常错误信息表

执行的过程中会外包一层 try...catch,将操作过程中的错误信息保存在表 DBData_ArchiveErrLog。表结构如下:

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[DBData_ArchiveErrLog](    [ID] [int] IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,    [IP] [varchar](30) NULL,    [DBName] [varchar](60) NULL,    [DataTable] [varchar](80) NULL,    [TargetIP] [varchar](30) NULL,    [TargetDB] [varchar](60) NULL,    [TargetTable] [varchar](80) NULL,    [Errormsg] [nvarchar](max) NULL,    [TransDateTime] [varchar](30) NULL) ON [PRIMARY] TEXTIMAGE_ON [PRIMARY]GO

四. 存储过程相应的主要代码

SET ANSI_NULLS ONGOSET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ONGO-- =============================================-- Author:        <Author,,Name>-- Create date: <Create Date,,>-- Description:    <Description,,>-- =============================================CREATE PROCEDURE [dbo].[SP_XXXXX_DataArchive]AS    SET NOCOUNT ON;    DECLARE @sql1 VARCHAR(MAX)     DECLARE @sql VARCHAR(MAX)     DECLARE @sql2 VARCHAR(MAX)    DECLARE @IP VARCHAR(MAX)     DECLARE @DBName VARCHAR(MAX)     DECLARE @DataTable VARCHAR(MAX)     DECLARE @TargetIP VARCHAR(MAX)     DECLARE @TargetDB VARCHAR(MAX)     DECLARE @TargetTable VARCHAR(MAX)     DECLARE @Prerequisite VARCHAR(MAX)     DECLARE @DelMaxQTY INT    DECLARE @StartTime DATETIME    DECLARE @EndTime DATETIME    DECLARE @qty INT     DECLARE @ISCHECKORDERID INT ----Carson   2018-12-17 备份数据的时间往往比删除的时间长3倍,因此,如果考虑将备份的操作转移到辅助库,将会对线上的操作影响降至更低    DECLARE @BakDateIP VARCHAR(30)      set @BakDateIP='[XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX].'-------后面一定要有一个点--------------------------------------------------归档操作---------------------------------    DECLARE DBName CURSOR    FOR        SELECT  IP ,                DBName ,                DataTable ,                TargetIP ,                TargetDB ,                TargetTable ,                Prerequisite ,                DelMaxQTY ,                ISCHECKORDERID ,                StartTime ,                EndTime        FROM    [中央管理器].[中央管理数据库].[dbo].[DBData_ArchiveConfig]        WHERE   DataTable <> ''                AND TargetTable <> ''                AND DBNAME = 'XXXXXXXXX' and SP_Name='?????'    OPEN DBName        FETCH NEXT FROM DBName INTO @IP, @DBName, @DataTable, @TargetIP, @TargetDB,        @TargetTable, @Prerequisite, @DelMaxQTY, @ISCHECKORDERID,        @StartTime, @EndTime       WHILE ( @@fetch_status = 0 )    BEGIN          DECLARE @datetime DATETIME        IF @ISCHECKORDERID <> '1'  AND @DataTable <> ''        BEGIN            SET @datetime = CONVERT(VARCHAR(10), GETDATE() - 30, 120)                            SET @sql = 'Insert into [' + @TargetIP + '].'                + @TargetDB + '.' + 'dbo.' + @TargetTable + '                 select * FROM ' + @BakDateIP + @DBName + '.' + 'dbo.' + @DataTable + '                  with(nolock) where ' + @Prerequisite + ''                            SET @sql1 = 'DECLARE @icount INTEGER                          SELECT @icount = COUNT(1)                          FROM ' + @BakDateIP + @DBName + '.' + 'dbo.' + @DataTable + '                        where ' + @Prerequisite + '                          insert into [中央管理器].[中央管理数据库].dbo.DBData_ArchiveLog (IP, DBName, DataTable, BakQTY, BakStartDate, BakEndDate)                        select ''' + @IP + ''',''' + @DBName + ''',''' + @DataTable                                    + ''',@icount,getdate(),null                        WHILE @icount > 0                           BEGIN                                                  DELETE TOP (' + CAST(@DelMaxQTY AS VARCHAR(10)) + ')                              FROM ' + @DBName + '.' + 'dbo.' + @DataTable + '                             where ' + @Prerequisite + '                                  SET @icount = @icount -('                                    + CAST(@DelMaxQTY AS VARCHAR(10)) + ')                              WAITFOR DELAY ''00:00:01''                          END  '                              BEGIN TRY            EXEC (@sql)            EXEC (@sql1)           END TRY          BEGIN CATCH             DECLARE @Errmsg AS nvarchar(MAX)             SELECT @Errmsg=ERROR_MESSAGE()               ------0001 BEGIN SAVE ERR LOG IN TABLE               INSERT INTO [中央管理器].[中央管理数据库].[dbo].DBData_ArchiveErrLog  ([IP] ,[DBName],[DataTable],[TargetIP],[TargetDB],[TargetTable],[Errormsg] ,[TransDateTime])               VALUES(@IP, @DBName, @DataTable, @TargetIP, @TargetDB, @TargetTable,@Errmsg,convert(VARCHAR(25),GETDATE(), 120))                      ------0001 END                -------------0002 BEGIN SEND EMAIL MESSAGE----------------                                  DECLARE @Subject AS nvarchar(200)                    DECLARE @Body AS nvarchar(MAX)                    DECLARE @SPName AS nvarchar(MAX)                                SET @Subject = '数据库归档异常 -重要!;ServerIP:' + @IP + ' DB:' + @DBName                                SET @SPName = ''                                SET @Body = '<html><body>Dear All,<br> <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ServerIP:' +@IP + ' ; DataBase:' + @DBName+ '上的Table归档异常,请及时检查!!!                               <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;You can get detail information from the table. <br><br><table border=1 bgcolor=#aaff11>'                                 SET @Body = @Body+ '<tr bgcolor=#ff3311><td>ServerIP</td><td>DBName</td><td>TableName</td><td>TargetIP</td><td>TargetDB</td><td>Errmsg</td><td>TransDateTime</td></tr>'                                SELECT  @SPName = @SPName + '<tr bgcolor=#ffaa11><td>'+ CAST(@IP AS NVARCHAR(50))+ '</td><td>' + CAST(@DBName AS NVARCHAR(50)) + '</td><td>'+CAST(@DataTable AS NVARCHAR(50))+ '</td>                                <td>'+ CAST(@TargetIP AS NVARCHAR(20))+ '</td><td>'+ CAST(@TargetDB AS NVARCHAR(50))+ '</td><td>'+ SUBSTRING(@Errmsg,1, 100)+ '</td><td>'+ CONVERT(varchar(100), GETDATE(), 21)+ '</td></tr>'                                SET @Body = @Body + @SPName + '</table>'                    SET @BODY=REPLACE(@BODY,'''','')                    IF REPLACE(@BODY,' ','')<>''                        BEGIN                            DECLARE @AllEmailToAddress varchar(3000)=''                            DECLARE @AllEmailCcAddress varchar(3000)=''                            DECLARE @Allprofile_name varchar(100)=''                            SELECT @AllEmailToAddress=''                            SELECT @AllEmailCcAddress=''                            SELECT TOP 1 @Allprofile_name=NAME FROM msdb.dbo.sysmail_profile                             ORDER BY profile_id                            EXEC msdb..sp_send_dbmail @profile_name = @Allprofile_name   -- profile 名称                              ,@recipients   =  @AllEmailToAddress        -- 收件人邮箱                              ,@copy_recipients=@AllEmailCcAddress                             ,@subject      =  @Subject                  -- 邮件标题                              ,@body         =  @BODY                     -- 邮件内容                              ,@body_format  =  'HTML'                    -- 邮件格式                              ,@file_attachments=''                             ,@Importance = 'High'                        END                           -------------    0002 end ------------                         END CATCH                      END                FETCH NEXT FROM DBName INTO @IP, @DBName, @DataTable, @TargetIP,                    @TargetDB, @TargetTable, @Prerequisite, @DelMaxQTY,                    @ISCHECKORDERID, @StartTime, @EndTime              END            CLOSE DBName     DEALLOCATE DBName    DECLARE DELETETABLE CURSOR    FOR        SELECT  IP ,                DBName ,                DataTable ,                TargetTable ,                Prerequisite ,                DelMaxQTY         FROM    [中央管理器].[中央管理数据库].[dbo].[DBData_ArchiveConfig]        WHERE   DataTable <> ''                AND TargetTable = ''                AND DBNAME = 'XXXXXXXXX'  and SP_Name='????'    OPEN DELETETABLE      FETCH NEXT FROM DELETETABLE INTO @IP, @DBName, @DataTable,        @TargetTable, @Prerequisite, @DelMaxQTY    WHILE ( @@fetch_status = 0 )        BEGIN          SET @sql1 = 'DECLARE @icount INTEGER                                      SELECT @icount = COUNT(1)                                      FROM ' + @DBName + '.' + 'dbo.' + @DataTable + '                                    where ' + @Prerequisite + '                                      WHILE @icount > 0                                       BEGIN                                                              DELETE TOP (' + CAST(@DelMaxQTY AS VARCHAR(10)) + ')                                          FROM ' + @DBName + '.' + 'dbo.' + @DataTable + '                                         where ' + @Prerequisite + '                                              SET @icount = @icount -('                                                + CAST(@DelMaxQTY AS VARCHAR(10)) + ')                                          WAITFOR DELAY ''00:00:01''                                      END  '                        PRINT @sql1                        EXEC (@sql1)            FETCH NEXT FROM DELETETABLE INTO @IP, @DBName, @DataTable,@TargetTable, @Prerequisite, @DelMaxQTY        END     CLOSE DELETETABLE     DEALLOCATE DELETETABLEGO

五.补充数据

1.数据库归档,一般都是先将当前库的历史数据归档到历史库,再将当前库的历史数据删除。这两个阶段,一般是前者耗时较多(一般都在2:1以上),虽然可以在select 过程加上nolock,但是或者I/O或者网络等原因,其实这个阶段对应用程序的影响还是比较大的。所以,建议将这两个阶段物理分开,即如果有配置AlwaysOn,请将第一个阶段在辅助数据库中执行。上面的SP示例,就是通过参数 @BakDateIP 来实现了这一作用。

2.存储过程中包含了try...catch,所以运行此sp就会很少报错,某一个表的异常不会相互影响。例如,我们常见的当前库、历史库由于表结构变更而导致的不一致,此情况出现后,try..catch可以捕捉到异常,将异常记录在档,并将此信息以邮件的形式发送给指定人,但整个SP不会执行失败。并且还会跳过这一个异常,继续执行下一个备份归档表的归档。

本文版权归作者所有,未经作者同意不得转载,谢谢配合!!!

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