MySQL利用binlog恢复误操作数据

2017-01-07 10:39:09来源:open-open作者:网络转载人点击

在人工手动进行一些数据库写操作的时候(比方说数据订正),尤其是一些不可控的批量更新或删除,通常都建议备份后操作。不过不怕万一,就怕一万,有备无患总是好的。在线上或者测试环境误操作导致数据被删除或者更新后,想要恢复,一般有两种方法。


方法一、利用最近的全量备份+增量binlog备份,恢复到误操作之前的状态,但是随着数据量的增大,binlog的增多,恢复起来很费时。 方法二、如果binlog的格式为row,那么就可以将binlog解析出来生成反向的原始SQL


以下是利用方法二写的一个python脚本binlog_rollback.py,可利用此脚本生成反向的原始SQL。


说明:

0、前提是binlog的格式为row


1、要恢复的表操作前后表结构没有发生变更,否则脚本无法解析


2、只生成DML(insert/update/delete)的rollback语句


3、最终生成的SQL是逆序的,所以最新的DML会生成在输入文件的最前面,并且带上了时间戳和偏移点,方便查找目标


4、需要提供一个连接MySQL的只读用户,主要是为了获取表结构


5、如果binlog过大,建议带上时间范围,也可以指定只恢复某个库的SQL


6、SQL生成后,请务必在测试环境上测试恢复后再应用到线上


演示 #首先创建一个只读账号
root:test> grant select on *.* to 'query'@'127.0.0.1' identified by '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.01 sec) #测试表结构如下
root:test> CREATE TABLE `table1` (
-> `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
-> `c1` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
-> `c2` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
-> `c3` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
-> PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
-> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)
#插入三条数据
root:test> insert into table1(c1,c2,c3) values (1,'a',1),(2,'b',2),(3,'c',3);
Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 3Duplicates: 0Warnings: 0
root:test> select * from table1;
+----+------+------+------+
| id | c1 | c2 | c3 |
+----+------+------+------+
|1 |1 | a|1 |
|2 |2 | b|2 |
|3 |3 | c|3 |
+----+------+------+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
#更新一条数据
root:test> update table1 set c3=10 where id=3;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
Rows matched: 1Changed: 1Warnings: 0
root:test> select * from table1;
+----+------+------+------+
| id | c1 | c2 | c3 |
+----+------+------+------+
|1 |1 | a|1 |
|2 |2 | b|2 |
|3 |3 | c| 10 |
+----+------+------+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
#删除一条数据
root:test> delete from table1 where id=1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
root:test> select * from table1;
+----+------+------+------+
| id | c1 | c2 | c3 |
+----+------+------+------+
|2 |2 | b|2 |
|3 |3 | c| 10 |
+----+------+------+------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

接下来利用脚本来生成反向SQL

[root@diandi ~]# python binlog_rollback.py -f /log/mysql/bin/mysql-bin.000002-o rollback.sql -u query -p 123456 --start-datetime='2016-10-28 00:00:00' -d test
正在获取参数.....
正在解析binlog.....
正在初始化列名.....
正在开始拼凑sql.....
done!
#查看反向SQL,最新的DML会生成在输入文件的最前面
[root@diandi ~]# cat rollback.sql
## at 155848
##161028 17:07:10 server id 22100end_log_pos 155898 CRC32 0x5000bca7Delete_rows: table id 351 flags: STMT_END_F
INSERT INTO `test`.`table1`
SET
id=1
,c1=1
,c2='a'
,c3=1;
## at 155560
##161028 17:04:56 server id 22100end_log_pos 155626 CRC32 0x11d91e2dUpdate_rows: table id 351 flags: STMT_END_F
UPDATE `test`.`table1`
SET
id=3
,c1=3
,c2='c'
,c3=3
WHERE
id=3
AND c1=3
AND c2='c'
AND c3=10;
## at 155258
##161028 16:59:31 server id 22100end_log_pos 155338 CRC32 0x3978c1c1Write_rows: table id 351 flags: STMT_END_F
DELETE FROM `test`.`table1`
WHERE
id=3
AND c1=3
AND c2='c'
AND c3=3;
DELETE FROM `test`.`table1`
WHERE
id=2
AND c1=2
AND c2='b'
AND c3=2;
DELETE FROM `test`.`table1`
WHERE
id=1
AND c1=1
AND c2='a'
AND c3=1;

执行回滚操作

#直接source整个文件,table1将恢复到原来的空表状态(实际情况,在测试环境上按需索取,然后再恢复线上)
root:test> source /root/rollback.sql
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
Rows matched: 1Changed: 1Warnings: 0
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
root:test> select * from table1;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

具体的参数使用方法如下:

[root@diandi ~]# python binlog_rollback.py
==========================================================================================
Command line options :
--help# OUT : print help info
-f, --binlog # IN: binlog file. (required)
-o, --outfile# OUT : output rollback sql file. (default 'rollback.sql')
-h, --host# IN: host. (default '127.0.0.1')
-u, --user# IN: user. (required)
-p, --password # IN: password. (required)
-P, --port# IN: port. (default 3306)
--start-datetime # IN: start datetime. (default '1970-01-01 00:00:00')
--stop-datetime# IN: stop datetime. default '2070-01-01 00:00:00'
--start-position # IN: start position. (default '4')
--stop-position# IN: stop position. (default '18446744073709551615')
-d, --database # IN: List entries for just this database (No default value).
--only-primary # IN: Only list primary key in where condition (default 0)
Sample :
shell> python binlog_rollback.py -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/rollback.sql' -h 192.168.0.1 -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -P 3307 -d dbname
脚本代码 #!/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import os,sys,re,getopt
import MySQLdbhost = '127.0.0.1'
user = ''
password = ''
port = 3306
start_datetime = '1971-01-01 00:00:00'
stop_datetime = '2037-01-01 00:00:00'
start_position = '4'
stop_position = '18446744073709551615'
database = ''
mysqlbinlog_bin = 'mysqlbinlog -v'
binlog = ''
fileContent = ''
output='rollback.sql'
only_primary = 0# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 功能:获取参数,生成相应的binlog解析文件
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
def getopts_parse_binlog():
global host
global user
global password
global port
global fileContent
global output
global binlog
global start_datetime
global stop_datetime
global start_position
global stop_position
global database
global only_primary
try:
options, args = getopt.getopt(sys.argv[1:], "f:o:h:u:p:P:d:", ["help","binlog=","output=","host=","user=","password=","port=","start-datetime=", /
"stop-datetime=","start-position=","stop-position=","database=","only-primary="])
except getopt.GetoptError:
print "参数输入有误!!!!!"
options = []
if options == [] or options[0][0] in ("--help"):
usage()
sys.exit()
print "正在获取参数....."
for name, value in options:
if name == "-f" or name == "--binlog":
binlog = value
if name == "-o" or name == "--output":
output = value
if name == "-h" or name == "--host":
host = value
if name == "-u" or name == "--user":
user = value
if name == "-p" or name == "--password":
password = value
if name == "-P" or name == "--port":
port = value
if name == "--start-datetime":
start_datetime = value
if name == "--stop-datetime":
stop_datetime = value
if name == "--start-position":
start_position = value
if name == "--stop-position":
stop_position = value
if name == "-d" or name == "--database":
database = value
if name == "--only-primary" :
only_primary = value
if binlog == '' :
print "错误:请指定binlog文件名!"
usage()
if user == '' :
print "错误:请指定用户名!"
usage()
if password == '' :
print "错误:请指定密码!"
usage()
if database <> '' :
condition_database = "--database=" + "'" + database + "'"
else:
condition_database = ''
print "正在解析binlog....."
fileContent=os.popen("%s %s--base64-output=DECODE-ROWS --start-datetime='%s' --stop-datetime='%s' --start-position='%s' --stop-position='%s' %s/
|grep '###' -B 2|sed -e 's/### //g' -e 's/^INSERT/##INSERT/g' -e 's/^UPDATE/##UPDATE/g' -e 's/^DELETE/##DELETE/g' " /
%(mysqlbinlog_bin,binlog,start_datetime,stop_datetime,start_position,stop_position,condition_database)).read()
#print fileContent# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 功能:初始化binlog里的所有表名和列名,用全局字典result_dict来储存每个表有哪些列
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
def init_col_name():
global result_dict
global pri_dict
global fileContent
result_dict = {}
pri_dict = {}
table_list = re.findall('`.*`//.`.*`',fileContent)
table_list = list(set(table_list))
#table_list 为所有在这段binlog里出现过的表
print "正在初始化列名....."
for table in table_list:
sname = table.split('.')[0].replace('`','')
tname = table.split('.')[1].replace('`','')
#连接数据库获取列和列id
try:
conn = MySQLdb.connect(host=host,user=user,passwd=password,port=int(port))
cursor = conn.cursor()
cursor.execute("select ordinal_position,column_name /
from information_schema.columns /
where table_schema='%s' and table_name='%s' " %(sname,tname))
result=cursor.fetchall()
if result == () :
print 'Warning:'+sname+'.'+tname+'已删除'
#sys.exit()
result_dict[sname+'.'+tname]=result
cursor.execute("select ordinal_position,column_name /
from information_schema.columns /
where table_schema='%s' and table_name='%s' and column_key='PRI' " %(sname,tname))
pri=cursor.fetchall()
#print pri
pri_dict[sname+'.'+tname]=pri
cursor.close()
conn.close()
except MySQLdb.Error, e:
try:
print "Error %d:%s" % (e.args[0], e.args[1])
except IndexError:
print "MySQL Error:%s" % str(e)
sys.exit()
#print result_dict
#print pri_dict
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 功能:拼凑回滚sql,逆序
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
def gen_rollback_sql():
global only_primary
fileOutput = open(output, 'w')
#先将文件根据'--'分块,每块代表一个sql
area_list=fileContent.split('--/n')
#逆序读取分块
print "正在开始拼凑sql....."
for area in area_list[::-1]:
#由于一条sql可能影响多行,每个sql又可以分成多个逐条执行的sql
sql_list = area.split('##')
#先将pos点和timestamp传入输出文件中
for sql_head in sql_list[0].splitlines():
sql_head = '#'+sql_head+'/n'
fileOutput.write(sql_head)
#逐条sql进行替换更新,逆序
for sql in sql_list[::-1][0:-1]:
try:
if sql.split()[0] == 'INSERT':
rollback_sql = re.sub('^INSERT INTO', 'DELETE FROM', sql, 1)
rollback_sql = re.sub('SET/n', 'WHERE/n', rollback_sql, 1)
tablename_pos = 2
table_name = rollback_sql.split()[tablename_pos].replace('`', '')
# 获取该sql中的所有列
col_list = sorted(list(set(re.findall('@/d+', rollback_sql))))
# 因为第一个列前面没有逗号或者and,所以单独替换
rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace('@1=', result_dict[table_name][0][1]+'=')
for col in col_list[1:]:
i = int(col[1:]) - 1
rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace(col+'=', 'AND ' + result_dict[table_name][i][1]+'=',1)
# 如果only_primary开启且存在主键,where条件里就只列出主键字段
if int(only_primary) == 1 and pri_dict[table_name] <> ():
sub_where = ''
for primary in pri_dict[table_name]:
primary_name = primary[1]
for condition in rollback_sql.split('WHERE', 1)[1].splitlines():
if re.compile('^/s*'+primary_name).match(condition) or re.compile('^/s*AND/s*'+primary_name).match(condition):
sub_where = sub_where + condition + '/n'
sub_where = re.sub('^/s*AND', '', sub_where, 1)
rollback_sql = rollback_sql.split('WHERE', 1)[0] + 'WHERE/n' + sub_where
if sql.split()[0] == 'UPDATE':
rollback_sql = re.sub('SET/n', '#SET#/n', sql, 1)
rollback_sql = re.sub('WHERE/n', 'SET/n', rollback_sql, 1)
rollback_sql = re.sub('#SET#/n', 'WHERE/n', rollback_sql, 1)
tablename_pos = 1
table_name = rollback_sql.split()[tablename_pos].replace('`', '')
# 获取该sql中的所有列
col_list = sorted(list(set(re.findall('@/d+', rollback_sql))))
# 因为第一个列前面没有逗号或者and,所以单独替换
rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace('@1=', result_dict[table_name][0][1] + '=')
for col in col_list[1:]:
i = int(col[1:]) - 1
rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace(col+'=', ',' + result_dict[table_name][i][1]+'=', 1).replace(col+'=','AND ' +result_dict[table_name][i][1]+'=')
# 如果only_primary开启且存在主键,where条件里就只列出主键字段
if int(only_primary) == 1 and pri_dict[table_name] <> ():
sub_where = ''
for primary in pri_dict[table_name]:
primary_name = primary[1]
for condition in rollback_sql.split('WHERE', 1)[1].splitlines():
if re.compile('^/s*' + primary_name).match(condition) or re.compile('^/s*AND/s*'+primary_name).match(condition):
sub_where = sub_where + condition + '/n'
sub_where = re.sub('^/s*AND', '', sub_where, 1)
rollback_sql = rollback_sql.split('WHERE', 1)[0] + 'WHERE/n' + sub_where
if sql.split()[0] == 'DELETE':
rollback_sql = re.sub('^DELETE FROM', 'INSERT INTO', sql, 1)
rollback_sql = re.sub('WHERE/n', 'SET/n', rollback_sql, 1)
tablename_pos = 2
table_name = rollback_sql.split()[tablename_pos].replace('`', '')
# 获取该sql中的所有列
col_list = sorted(list(set(re.findall('@/d+', rollback_sql))))
# 因为第一个列前面没有逗号或者and,所以单独替换
rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace('@1=', result_dict[table_name][0][1] + '=')
for col in col_list[1:]:
i = int(col[1:]) - 1
rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace(col+'=', ',' + result_dict[table_name][i][1]+'=',1)
rollback_sql = re.sub('/n$',';/n',rollback_sql)
#print rollback_sql
fileOutput.write(rollback_sql)
except IndexError,e:
print "Error:%s" % str(e)
sys.exit()
print "done!"
def usage():
help_info="""==========================================================================================
Command line options :
--help# OUT : print help info
-f, --binlog # IN: binlog file. (required)
-o, --outfile# OUT : output rollback sql file. (default 'rollback.sql')
-h, --host# IN: host. (default '127.0.0.1')
-u, --user# IN: user. (required)
-p, --password # IN: password. (required)
-P, --port# IN: port. (default 3306)
--start-datetime # IN: start datetime. (default '1970-01-01 00:00:00')
--stop-datetime# IN: stop datetime. default '2070-01-01 00:00:00'
--start-position # IN: start position. (default '4')
--stop-position# IN: stop position. (default '18446744073709551615')
-d, --database # IN: List entries for just this database (No default value).
--only-primary # IN: Only list primary key in where condition (default 0)
Sample :
shell> python binlog_rollback.py -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/rollback.sql' -h 192.168.0.1 -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -P 3307 -d dbname
=========================================================================================="""
print help_info
sys.exit()if __name__ == '__main__':
getopts_parse_binlog()
init_col_name()
gen_rollback_sql()

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