深入理解sudo

2018-02-12 18:54:22来源:cnblogs.com作者:潇潇、寒人点击

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[root@cairui ~]# cat /etc/sudoers## Sudoers allows particular users to run various commands as## the root user, without needing the root password.        #sudoers允许特定的用户去执行各种命令以rot的身份,不需要root密码。#### Examples are provided at the bottom of the file for collections## of related commands, which can then be delegated out to particular## users or groups.## ## This file must be edited with the 'visudo' command.## Host Aliases## Groups of machines. You may prefer to use hostnames (perhaps using ## wildcards for entire domains) or IP addresses instead.# Host_Alias     FILESERVERS = fs1, fs2# Host_Alias     MAILSERVERS = smtp, smtp2## User Aliases## These aren't often necessary, as you can use regular groups## (ie, from files, LDAP, NIS, etc) in this file - just use %groupname ## rather than USERALIAS# User_Alias ADMINS = jsmith, mikem## Command Aliases## These are groups of related commands...## Networking# Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route, /sbin/ifconfig, /bin/ping, /sbin/dhclient, /usr/bin/net, /sbin/iptables, /usr/bin/rfcomm, /usr/bin/wvdial, /sbin/iwconfig, /sbin/mii-tool## Installation and management of software# Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm, /usr/bin/up2date, /usr/bin/yum## Services# Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service, /sbin/chkconfig## Updating the locate database# Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/bin/updatedb## Storage# Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk, /sbin/sfdisk, /sbin/parted, /sbin/partprobe, /bin/mount, /bin/umount## Delegating permissions# Cmnd_Alias DELEGATING = /usr/sbin/visudo, /bin/chown, /bin/chmod, /bin/chgrp ## Processes# Cmnd_Alias PROCESSES = /bin/nice, /bin/kill, /usr/bin/kill, /usr/bin/killall## Drivers# Cmnd_Alias DRIVERS = /sbin/modprobe# Defaults specification## Refuse to run if unable to disable echo on the tty.#Defaults   !visiblepw## Preserving HOME has security implications since many programs# use it when searching for configuration files. Note that HOME# is already set when the the env_reset option is enabled, so# this option is only effective for configurations where either# env_reset is disabled or HOME is present in the env_keep list.#Defaults    always_set_homeDefaults    env_resetDefaults    env_keep =  "COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE INPUTRC KDEDIR LS_COLORS"Defaults    env_keep += "MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE"Defaults    env_keep += "LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES"Defaults    env_keep += "LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE"Defaults    env_keep += "LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY"## Adding HOME to env_keep may enable a user to run unrestricted# commands via sudo.## Defaults   env_keep += "HOME"Defaults    secure_path = /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin## Next comes the main part: which users can run what software on ## which machines (the sudoers file can be shared between multiple## systems).## Syntax:####     user    MACHINE=COMMANDS#### The COMMANDS section may have other options added to it.#### Allow root to run any commands anywhere root    ALL=(ALL)     ALL## Allows members of the 'sys' group to run networking, software, ## service management apps and more.# %sys ALL = NETWORKING, SOFTWARE, SERVICES, STORAGE, DELEGATING, PROCESSES, LOCATE, DRIVERS## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands# %wheel    ALL=(ALL)    ALL## Same thing without a password# %wheel    ALL=(ALL)    NOPASSWD: ALL## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the ## cdrom as root# %users  ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom, /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system# %users  localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now## Read drop-in files from /etc/sudoers.d (the # here does not mean a comment)#includedir /etc/sudoers.d

注意:修改完(visudo)之后,需要visudo -c检查一下是否有错误。

sudo -l查看用户拥有的权限。

1、sudoers配置文件别名介绍

(1)Host Aliases(主机别名)

    生产环境中一般不会设置主机别名,一般主机别名不太常用

root    ALL=(ALL)     ALL    #第一个ALL就是主机别名的应用位置

(2)User Aliases(用户别名)
如果表示用户组那么前面加%
root    ALL=(ALL)     ALL    #root就是用户别名的应用位置
User_Aliases ADMINS = jsmith,mikem

(3)Runas_Alias别名
此别名是指定“用户身份”,即sudo允许切换到的用户
root    ALL=(ALL)     ALL    #第二个ALL就是用户别名的应用位置
Runas_Alias OP = root

(4)Cmnd_Alias(命令别名)
就是定义一个别名,它可以包含一堆命令的内容(一组相关命令的集合)
root    ALL=(ALL)     ALL    

Cmnd_Alias DRIVERS = /sbin/modpro

2、sudo日志审计
(1)生产环境中日志方案
    a、syslog全部操作日志审计,这种方法信息量大,不便查看
    b、sudo日志配置syslog服务进行日志审查
    c、堡垒机日志审查
    d、bash安装监视器,记录用户使用操作
(2)配合sudo日志审计
安装sudo与syslog服务

配置服务

创建日志保存目录

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir -p /var/log/

查看服务器版本,6.x为/etc/rsyslog.conf,5.x版本为syslog.conf

上述为rsyslog的配置文件

 

上述为sudoers的配置文件

测试结果:

[root@localhost ~]# su - cairui[cairui@localhost ~]$ sudo visudo[sudo] password for cairui: visudo: /etc/sudoers.tmp unchanged[cairui@localhost ~]$ cd /tmp/[cairui@localhost tmp]$ touch 123.txt[cairui@localhost tmp]$ sudo llsudo: ll: command not found[cairui@localhost tmp]$ sudo ls -lltotal 0-rw-rw-r--  1 cairui cairui 0 Feb 12 09:41 123.txt-rw-------. 1 root   root   0 Feb  9 09:57 yum.log[cairui@localhost tmp]$ sudo cat /var/log/sudo.log Feb 12 09:41:19 : cairui : TTY=pts/0 ; PWD=/home/cairui ; USER=root ;    COMMAND=/usr/sbin/visudoFeb 12 09:41:47 : cairui : TTY=pts/0 ; PWD=/tmp ; USER=root ; COMMAND=/bin/ls    -llFeb 12 09:42:12 : cairui : TTY=pts/0 ; PWD=/tmp ; USER=root ; COMMAND=/bin/cat    /var/log/sudo.log




 

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