Linux之rsync数据同步服务

2018-02-26 08:11:22来源:cnblogs.com作者:潇潇、寒人点击

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  rsync是一个开源、快速的、多动能的、可以实现全量,增量的本地或远程数据同步备份工具,它适用于多种操作系统平台。

1、rsync的特性(功能)

(1)支持拷贝特殊文件(如链接文件、设备文件)

(2)拷贝时可以排除目录中目录或文件不需要同步的功能

(3)可以保持源文件或目录的属性不发生改变

(4)可以实现全量、增量的同步功能、传输效率比较高

(5)可以使用scp、ssh、rsh等方式配合使用

(6)可以通过socke传输方式来同步数据

(7)支持匿名或认证(无需系统用户)的进和模式来进行传输同步数据

2、rsync的工作方式

(1)主机本地的传输,类似于cp功能

(2)借助于SSH服务来传输数据

(3)以守护进程的方式来进行传输数据

[root@localhost1 ~]# rsync --helprsync  version 3.0.6  protocol version 30Copyright (C) 1996-2009 by Andrew Tridgell, Wayne Davison, and others.Web site: http://rsync.samba.org/Capabilities:    64-bit files, 64-bit inums, 64-bit timestamps, 64-bit long ints,    socketpairs, hardlinks, symlinks, IPv6, batchfiles, inplace,    append, ACLs, xattrs, iconv, symtimesrsync comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.  This is free software, and youare welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions.  See the GNUGeneral Public Licence for details.rsync is a file transfer program capable of efficient remote updatevia a fast differencing algorithm.Usage: rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST  or   rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST  or   rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST  or   rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST  or   rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST]  or   rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]  or   rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]The ':' usages connect via remote shell, while '::' & 'rsync://' usages connectto an rsync daemon, and require SRC or DEST to start with a module name.Options -v, --verbose               increase verbosity    #增加冗长(显示详细模式) -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages     --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see manpage caveat) -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)  #归档模式,     --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)    #关闭一个隐含的选项 -r, --recursive             recurse into directories -R, --relative              use relative path names     --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)     --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR     --suffix=SUFFIX         set backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir) -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver     --inplace               update destination files in-place (SEE MAN PAGE)     --append                append data onto shorter files     --append-verify         like --append, but with old data in file checksum -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir     --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed     --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the source tree -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to a dir into referent dir -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links -p, --perms                 preserve permissions -E, --executability         preserve the file's executability     --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies --perms) -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only) -g, --group                 preserve group     --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)     --copy-devices          copy device contents as regular file     --specials              preserve special files -D                          same as --devices --specials -t, --times                 preserve modification times -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times     --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities     --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (without delta-xfer algorithm) -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use    #指定要使用的远程shell     --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on the remote machine    #在指定的远程机器上运行rsync     --existing              skip creating new files on receiver    #跳过在接受器上创建新文件     --ignore-existing       skip updating files that already exist on receiver    #跳过已经存在于接收器上的更新文件     --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dirs)    #发送方删除同步文件(非目录)     --del                   an alias for --delete-during    #别名     --delete                delete extraneous files from destination dirs         --delete-before         receiver deletes before transfer, not during     --delete-during         receiver deletes during transfer (default)     --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after     --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during     --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from destination dirs     --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors     --force                 force deletion of directories even if not empty     --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files     --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE     --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE     --partial               keep partially transferred files      #保持部分转移文件     --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR     --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at transfer's end -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from the file-list     --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name     --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds     --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match in size and mod-time     --size-only             skip files that match in size     --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file     --compare-dest=DIR      also compare destination files relative to DIR     --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files     --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer    #在传输过程中压缩文件数据     --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level    #显示的设置压缩级别     --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with a suffix in LIST -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files the same way CVS does -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'                             repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'     --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN     --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE     --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN     --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE     --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE -0, --from0                 all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; only wildcard special-chars     --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon     --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number     --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options     --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell     --stats                 give some file-transfer stats -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format     --progress              show progress during transfer    #在转移过程中显示进行情况 -P                          same as --partial --progress -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates     --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT     --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE     --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT     --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE     --list-only             list the files instead of copying them     --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second     --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE     --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating destination     --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE     --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used     --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4 -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6     --version               print version number(-h) --help                  show this help (-h works with no other options)Use "rsync --daemon --help" to see the daemon-mode command-line options.Please see the rsync(1) and rsyncd.conf(5) man pages for full documentation.See http://rsync.samba.org/ for updates, bug reports, and answers

3、rsync同步命令格式

(1)本地主机

Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

(2)借助SSH服务

Access via remote shell:         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST
[root@localhost1 ~]# lltotal 20-rw-r--r--  1 root root    0 Feb 17 20:06 123.txt-rw-------. 1 root root  929 Feb  9 10:03 anaconda-ks.cfg-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 9615 Feb  9 10:03 install.log-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 3161 Feb  9 10:01 install.log.syslog[root@localhost1 ~]# rsync -avzP -e "ssh -p 22" root@192.168.181.129:/tmp/666 ~root@192.168.181.129's password: receiving incremental file list666           0 100%    0.00kB/s    0:00:00 (xfer#1, to-check=0/1)sent 30 bytes  received 69 bytes  28.29 bytes/sectotal size is 0  speedup is 0.00[root@localhost1 ~]# lltotal 20-rw-r--r--  1 root root    0 Feb 17 20:06 123.txt-rw-r--r--  1 root root    0 Feb 17 20:06 666-rw-------. 1 root root  929 Feb  9 10:03 anaconda-ks.cfg-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 9615 Feb  9 10:03 install.log-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 3161 Feb  9 10:01 install.log.syslog
[root@localhost2 ~]# lltotal 20-rw-------. 1 root root  929 Feb 15 02:25 anaconda-ks.cfg-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 9615 Feb 15 02:25 install.log-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 3161 Feb 15 02:23 install.log.syslog[root@localhost1 tmp]# ls123.txt  666  caicai  fenfa@192.168.181.129  yum.log[root@localhost1 tmp]# rsync -azvP -e "ssh -p 22" /tmp/666 root@192.168.181.129:~root@192.168.181.129's password: sending incremental file list666           0 100%    0.00kB/s    0:00:00 (xfer#1, to-check=0/1)sent 64 bytes  received 31 bytes  27.14 bytes/sectotal size is 0  speedup is 0.00[root@localhost2 ~]# lltotal 20-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Feb 17 18:55 666-rw-------. 1 root root  929 Feb 15 02:25 anaconda-ks.cfg-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 9615 Feb 15 02:25 install.log-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 3161 Feb 15 02:23 install.log.syslog

(3)守护进程模式

Access via rsync daemon:         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         rsync -avzP rsync://root@192.168.181.129:22/tmp/666 /tmp
Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST
         rsync -avzP /tmp/666 rsync://root@192.168.181.129:22/tmp

守护进程模式传输数据实战:

a、整体环境

备份数据的客户端

[root@localhost1 ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release CentOS release 6.8 (Final)[root@localhost1 ~]# uname -r2.6.32-642.el6.x86_64

备份数据服务器端

[root@localhost2 ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release CentOS release 6.8 (Final)[root@localhost2 ~]# uname -r2.6.32-642.el6.x86_64

b、检查是否安装rsync服务

[root@localhost2 ~]# rpm -qa | grep rsyncrsync-3.0.6-12.el6.x86_64
[root@localhost1 ~]# rpm -qa | grep "rsync"rsync-3.0.6-12.el6.x86_64

c、配置rsync的配置文件/etc/rsyncd.conf

rsyncd.conf(5)28 Jan 2018NAMErsyncd.conf - configuration file for rsync in daemon mode  #在守护进程模式下的配置SYNOPSISrsyncd.confDESCRIPTIONThe rsyncd.conf file is the runtime configuration file for rsync when run as an rsync daemon.  #rsyncd.conf文件是rsync的运行时配置文件,作为rsync守护进程运行The rsyncd.conf file controls authentication, access, logging and available modules.  #rsyncd.conf文件控制身份验证、访问、日志记录和可用模块。FILE FORMATThe file consists of modules and parameters. A module begins with the name of the module in square brackets and continues until the next module begins. Modules contain parameters of the form "name = value".The file is line-based -- that is, each newline-terminated line represents either a comment, a module name or a parameter.Only the first equals sign in a parameter is significant. Whitespace before or after the first equals sign is discarded. Leading, trailing and internal whitespace in module and parameter names is irrelevant. Leading and trailing whitespace in a parameter value is discarded. Internal whitespace within a parameter value is retained verbatim.Any line beginning with a hash (#) is ignored, as are lines containing only whitespace. (If a hash occurs after anything other than leading whitespace, it is considered a part of the line's content.)Any line ending in a / is "continued" on the next line in the customary UNIX fashion.The values following the equals sign in parameters are all either a string (no quotes needed) or a boolean, which may be given as yes/no, 0/1 or true/false. Case is not significant in boolean values, but is preserved in string values.LAUNCHING THE RSYNC DAEMON    #启动rsync守护进程The rsync daemon is launched by specifying the --daemon option to rsync.   #加 --daemon选项来启动 The daemon must run with root privileges if you wish to use chroot, to bind to a port numbered under 1024 (as is the default 873), or to set file ownership. Otherwise, it must just have permission to read and write the appropriate data, log, and lock files.You can launch it either via inetd, as a stand-alone daemon, or from an rsync client via a remote shell. If run as a stand-alone daemon then just run the command "rsync --daemon" from a suitable startup script.When run via inetd you should add a line like this to /etc/services:  rsync           873/tcpand a single line something like this to /etc/inetd.conf:  rsync   stream  tcp     nowait  root   /usr/bin/rsync rsyncd --daemonReplace "/usr/bin/rsync" with the path to where you have rsync installed on your system. You will then need to send inetd a HUP signal to tell it to reread its config file.Note that you should not send the rsync daemon a HUP signal to force it to reread the rsyncd.conf file. The file is re-read on each client connection.GLOBAL PARAMETERSThe first parameters in the file (before a [module] header) are the global parameters. Rsync also allows for the use of a "[global]" module name to indicate the start of one or more global-parameter sections (the name must be lower case).You may also include any module parameters in the global part of the config file in which case the supplied value will override the default for that parameter.You may use references to environment variables in the values of parameters. String parameters will have %VAR% references expanded as late as possible (when the string is used in the program), allowing for the use of variables that rsync sets at connection time, such as RSYNC_USER_NAME. Non-string parameters (such as true/false settings) are expanded when read from the config file. If a variable does not exist in the environment, or if a sequence of characters is not a valid reference (such as an un-paired percent sign), the raw characters are passed through unchanged. This helps with backward compatibility and safety (e.g. expanding a non-existent %VAR% to an empty string in a path could result in a very unsafe path). The safest way to insert a literal % into a value is to use %%.motd file  #当天日志This parameter allows you to specify a "message of the day" to display to clients on each connect. This usually contains site information and any legal notices. The default is no motd file. This can be overridden by the --dparam=motdfile=FILE command-line option when starting the daemon.pid file
这个参数告诉rsync守护进程将进程ID写入该文件。如果文件已经存在,rsync守护进程将中止而不是覆盖文件。当启动守护进程时,这可以被—dparam=pidfile=文件命令行选项覆盖
This parameter tells the rsync daemon to write its process ID to that file. If the file already exists, the rsync daemon will abort rather than overwrite the file. This can be overridden by the --dparam=pidfile=FILE command-line option when starting the daemon.port
您可以通过指定这个值(默认值为873)来覆盖守护进程监听的默认端口。如果这个守护进程是由inetd运行的,并且被——port命令行选项所取代,那么就会忽略它。
You can override the default port the daemon will listen on by specifying this value (defaults to 873). This is ignored if the daemon is being run by inetd, and is superseded by the --port command-line option.address
您可以通过指定这个值来覆盖守护进程监听的默认IP地址。如果这个守护进程是由inetd运行的,并且被——地址命令行选项所取代,那么这将被忽略。
You can override the default IP address the daemon will listen on by specifying this value. This is ignored if the daemon is being run by inetd, and is superseded by the --address command-line option.socket optionsThis parameter can provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!). Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options are set. These settings can also be specified via the --sockopts command-line option.listen backlogYou can override the default backlog value when the daemon listens for connections. It defaults to 5.MODULE PARAMETERS   #模块参数After the global parameters you should define a number of modules, each module exports a directory tree as a symbolic name. Modules are exported by specifying a module name in square brackets [module] followed by the parameters for that module. The module name cannot contain a slash or a closing square bracket. If the name contains whitespace, each internal sequence of whitespace will be changed into a single space, while leading or trailing whitespace will be discarded. Also, the name cannot be "global" as that exact name indicates that global parameters follow (see above).As with GLOBAL PARAMETERS, you may use references to environment variables in the values of parameters. See the GLOBAL PARAMETERS section for more details.commentThis parameter specifies a description string that is displayed next to the module name when clients obtain a list of available modules. The default is no comment.pathThis parameter specifies the directory in the daemon's filesystem to make available in this module. You must specify this parameter for each module in rsyncd.conf.You may base the path's value off of an environment variable by surrounding the variable name with percent signs. You can even reference a variable that is set by rsync when the user connects. For example, this would use the authorizing user's name in the path: path = /home/%RSYNC_USER_NAME% It is fine if the path includes internal spaces -- they will be retained verbatim (which means that you shouldn't try to escape them). If your final directory has a trailing space (and this is somehow not something you wish to fix), append a trailing slash to the path to avoid losing the trailing whitespace.use chrootIf "use chroot" is true, the rsync daemon will chroot to the "path" before starting the file transfer with the client. This has the advantage of extra protection against possible implementation security holes, but it has the disadvantages of requiring super-user privileges, of not being able to follow symbolic links that are either absolute or outside of the new root path, and of complicating the preservation of users and groups by name (see below).As an additional safety feature, you can specify a dot-dir in the module's "path" to indicate the point where the chroot should occur. This allows rsync to run in a chroot with a non-"/" path for the top of the transfer hierarchy. Doing this guards against unintended library loading (since those absolute paths will not be inside the transfer hierarchy unless you have used an unwise pathname), and lets you setup libraries for the chroot that are outside of the transfer. For example, specifying "/var/rsync/./module1" will chroot to the "/var/rsync" directory and set the inside-chroot path to "/module1". If you had omitted the dot-dir, the chroot would have used the whole path, and the inside-chroot path would have been "/".When both "use chroot" and "daemon chroot" are false, OR the inside-chroot path of "use chroot" is not "/", rsync will: (1) munge symlinks by default for security reasons (see "munge symlinks" for a way to turn this off, but only if you trust your users), (2) substitute leading slashes in absolute paths with the module's path (so that options such as --backup-dir, --compare-dest, etc. interpret an absolute path as rooted in the module's "path" dir), and (3) trim ".." path elements from args if rsync believes they would escape the module hierarchy. The default for "use chroot" is true, and is the safer choice (especially if the module is not read-only).When this parameter is enabled, the "numeric-ids" option will also default to being enabled (disabling name lookups). See below for what a chroot needs in order for name lookups to succeed.If you copy library resources into the module's chroot area, you should protect them through your OS's normal user/group or ACL settings (to prevent the rsync module's user from being able to change them), and then hide them from the user's view via "exclude" (see how in the discussion of that parameter). At that point it will be safe to enable the mapping of users and groups by name using the "numeric ids" daemon parameter (see below).Note also that you are free to setup custom user/group information in the chroot area that is different from your normal system. For example, you could abbreviate the list of users and groups.daemon chrootThis parameter specifies a path to which the daemon will chroot before beginning communication with clients. Module paths (and any "use chroot" settings) will then be related to this one. This lets you choose if you want the whole daemon to be chrooted (with this setting), just the transfers to be chrooted (with "use chroot"), or both. Keep in mind that the "daemon chroot" area may need various OS/lib/etc files installed to allow the daemon to function. By default the daemon runs without any chrooting.numeric idsEnabling this parameter disables the mapping of users and groups by name for the current daemon module. This prevents the daemon from trying to load any user/group-related files or libraries. This enabling makes the transfer behave as if the client had passed the --numeric-ids command-line option. By default, this parameter is enabled for chroot modules and disabled for non-chroot modules. Also keep in mind that uid/gid preservation requires the module to be running as root (see "uid") or for "fake super" to be configured.A chroot-enabled module should not have this parameter enabled unless you've taken steps to ensure that the module has the necessary resources it needs to translate names, and that it is not possible for a user to change those resources. That includes being the code being able to call functions like getpwuid() , getgrgid() , getpwname() , and getgrnam() . You should test what libraries and config files are required for your OS and get those setup before starting to test name mapping in rsync.munge symlinksThis parameter tells rsync to modify all symlinks in the same way as the (non-daemon-affecting) --munge-links command-line option (using a method described below). This should help protect your files from user trickery when your daemon module is writable. The default is disabled when "use chroot" is on with an inside-chroot path of "/", OR if "daemon chroot" is on, otherwise it is enabled.If you disable this parameter on a daemon that is not read-only, there are tricks that a user can play with uploaded symlinks to access daemon-excluded items (if your module has any), and, if "use chroot" is off, rsync can even be tricked into showing or changing data that is outside the module's path (as access-permissions allow).The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one with the string "/rsyncd-munged/". This prevents the links from being used as long as that directory does not exist. When this parameter is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory. When using the "munge symlinks" parameter in a chroot area that has an inside-chroot path of "/", you should add "/rsyncd-munged/" to the exclude setting for the module so that a user can't try to create it.Note: rsync makes no attempt to verify that any pre-existing symlinks in the module's hierarchy are as safe as you want them to be (unless, of course, it just copied in the whole hierarchy). If you setup an rsync daemon on a new area or locally add symlinks, you can manually protect your symlinks from being abused by prefixing "/rsyncd-munged/" to the start of every symlink's value. There is a perl script in the support directory of the source code named "munge-symlinks" that can be used to add or remove this prefix from your symlinks.When this parameter is disabled on a writable module and "use chroot" is off (or the inside-chroot path is not "/"), incoming symlinks will be modified to drop a leading slash and to remove ".." path elements that rsync believes will allow a symlink to escape the module's hierarchy. There are tricky ways to work around this, though, so you had better trust your users if you choose this combination of parameters.charsetThis specifies the name of the character set in which the module's filenames are stored. If the client uses an --iconv option, the daemon will use the value of the "charset" parameter regardless of the character set the client actually passed. This allows the daemon to support charset conversion in a chroot module without extra files in the chroot area, and also ensures that name-translation is done in a consistent manner. If the "charset" parameter is not set, the --iconv option is refused, just as if "iconv" had been specified via "refuse options".If you wish to force users to always use --iconv for a particular module, add "no-iconv" to the "refuse options" parameter. Keep in mind that this will restrict access to your module to very new rsync clients.max connectionsThis parameter allows you to specify the maximum number of simultaneous connections you will allow. Any clients connecting when the maximum has been reached will receive a message telling them to try later. The default is 0, which means no limit. A negative value disables the module. See also the "lock file" parameter.log fileWhen the "log file" parameter is set to a non-empty string, the rsync daemon will log messages to the indicated file rather than using syslog. This is particularly useful on systems (such as AIX) where syslog() doesn't work for chrooted programs. The file is opened before chroot() is called, allowing it to be placed outside the transfer. If this value is set on a per-module basis instead of globally, the global log will still contain any authorization failures or config-file error messages.If the daemon fails to open the specified file, it will fall back to using syslog and output an error about the failure. (Note that the failure to open the specified log file used to be a fatal error.)This setting can be overridden by using the --log-file=FILE or --dparam=logfile=FILE command-line options. The former overrides all the log-file parameters of the daemon and all module settings. The latter sets the daemon's log file and the default for all the modules, which still allows modules to override the default setting.syslog facilityThis parameter allows you to specify the syslog facility name to use when logging messages from the rsync daemon. You may use any standard syslog facility name which is defined on your system. Common names are auth, authpriv, cron, daemon, ftp, kern, lpr, mail, news, security, syslog, user, uucp, local0, local1, local2, local3, local4, local5, local6 and local7. The default is daemon. This setting has no effect if the "log file" setting is a non-empty string (either set in the per-modules settings, or inherited from the global settings).syslog tagThis parameter allows you to specify the syslog tag to use when logging messages from the rsync daemon. The default is "rsyncd". This setting has no effect if the "log file" setting is a non-empty string (either set in the per-modules settings, or inherited from the global settings).For example, if you wanted each authenticated user's name to be included in the syslog tag, you could do something like this: syslog tag = rsyncd.%RSYNC_USER_NAME%max verbosityThis parameter allows you to control the maximum amount of verbose information that you'll allow the daemon to generate (since the information goes into the log file). The default is 1, which allows the client to request one level of verbosity.This also affects the user's ability to request higher levels of --info and --debug logging. If the max value is 2, then no info and/or debug value that is higher than what would be set by -vv will be honored by the daemon in its logging. To see how high of a verbosity level you need to accept for a particular info/debug level, refer to "rsync --info=help" and "rsync --debug=help". For instance, it takes max-verbosity 4 to be able to output debug TIME2 and FLIST3.lock file  #锁文件
此参数指定用于支持“最大连接”参数的文件。rsync守护进程使用该文件上的记录锁定,以确保不超过共享锁文件的模块的最大连接限制。默认是/var/run/rsyncd.lock
This parameter specifies the file to use to support the "max connections" parameter. The rsync daemon uses record locking on this file to ensure that the max connections limit is not exceeded for the modules sharing the lock file. The default is /var/run/rsyncd.lock.read onlyThis parameter determines whether clients will be able to upload files or not. If "read only" is true then any attempted uploads will fail. If "read only" is false then uploads will be possible if file permissions on the daemon side allow them. The default is for all modules to be read only.Note that "auth users" can override this setting on a per-user basis.write onlyThis parameter determines whether clients will be able to download files or not. If "write only" is true then any attempted downloads will fail. If "write only" is false then downloads will be possible if file permissions on the daemon side allow them. The default is for this parameter to be disabled.Helpful hint: you probably want to specify "refuse options = delete" for a write-only module.list
此参数确定当客户端要求列出可用模块时,是否列出该模块。此外,如果这是错误的,守护进程将假装该模块不存在,当客户机拒绝“主机允许”或“主机拒绝”访问它时。认识到如果在全局上禁用“反向查找”,但对模块启用了,那么对潜在客户控制的DNS服务器的反向查找可能仍然会向客户机显示它碰到了一个已存在的模块。默认情况是模块可以列表。
This parameter determines whether this module is listed when the client asks for a listing of available modules. In addition, if this is false, the daemon will pretend the module does not exist when a client denied by "hosts allow" or "hosts deny" attempts to access it. Realize that if "reverse lookup" is disabled globally but enabled for the module, the resulting reverse lookup to a potentially client-controlled DNS server may still reveal to the client that it hit an existing module. The default is for modules to be listable.uidThis parameter specifies the user name or user ID that file transfers to and from that module should take place as when the daemon was run as root. In combination with the "gid" parameter this determines what file permissions are available. The default when run by a super-user is to switch to the system's "nobody" user. The default for a non-super-user is to not try to change the user. See also the "gid" parameter.The RSYNC_USER_NAME environment variable may be used to request that rsync run as the authorizing user. For example, if you want a rsync to run as the same user that was received for the rsync authentication, this setup is useful: uid = %RSYNC_USER_NAME% gid = * gidThis parameter specifies one or more group names/IDs that will be used when accessing the module. The first one will be the default group, and any extra ones be set as supplemental groups. You may also specify a "*" as the first gid in the list, which will be replaced by all the normal groups for the transfer's user (see "uid"). The default when run by a super-user is to switch to your OS's "nobody" (or perhaps "nogroup") group with no other supplementary groups. The default for a non-super-user is to not change any group attributes (and indeed, your OS may not allow a non-super-user to try to change their group settings).daemon uidThis parameter specifies a uid under which the daemon will run. The daemon usually runs as user root, and when this is left unset the user is left unchanged. See also the "uid" parameter.daemon gidThis parameter specifies a gid under which the daemon will run. The daemon usually runs as group root, and when this is left unset, the group is left unchanged. See also the "gid" parameter.fake superSetting "fake super = yes" for a module causes the daemon side to behave as if the --fake-super command-line option had been specified. This allows the full attributes of a file to be stored without having to have the daemon actually running as root.filterThe daemon has its own filter chain that determines what files it will let the client access. This chain is not sent to the client and is independent of any filters the client may have specified. Files excluded by the daemon filter chain (daemon-excluded files) are treated as non-existent if the client tries to pull them, are skipped with an error message if the client tries to push them (triggering exit code 23), and are never deleted from the module. You can use daemon filters to prevent clients from downloading or tampering with private administrative files, such as files you may add to support uid/gid name translations.The daemon filter chain is built from the "filter", "include from", "include", "exclude from", and "exclude" parameters, in that order of priority. Anchored patterns are anchored at the root of the module. To prevent access to an entire subtree, for example, "/secret", you must exclude everything in the subtree; the easiest way to do this is with a triple-star pattern like "/secret/***".The "filter" parameter takes a space-separated list of daemon filter rules, though it is smart enough to know not to split a token at an internal space in a rule (e.g. "- /foo - /bar" is parsed as two rules). You may specify one or more merge-file rules using the normal syntax. Only one "filter" parameter can apply to a given module in the config file, so put all the rules you want in a single parameter. Note that per-directory merge-file rules do not provide as much protection as global rules, but they can be used to make --delete work better during a client download operation if the per-dir merge files are included in the transfer and the client requests that they be used.excludeThis parameter takes a space-separated list of daemon exclude patterns. As with the client --exclude option, patterns can be qualified with "- " or "+ " to explicitly indicate exclude/include. Only one "exclude" parameter can apply to a given module. See the "filter" parameter for a description of how excluded files affect the daemon.includeUse an "include" to override the effects of the "exclude" parameter. Only one "include" parameter can apply to a given module. See the "filter" parameter for a description of how excluded files affect the daemon.exclude fromThis parameter specifies the name of a file on the daemon that contains daemon exclude patterns, one per line. Only one "exclude from" parameter can apply to a given module; if you have multiple exclude-from files, you can specify them as a merge file in the "filter" parameter. See the "filter" parameter for a description of how excluded files affect the daemon.include fromAnalogue of "exclude from" for a file of daemon include patterns. Only one "include from" parameter can apply to a given module. See the "filter" parameter for a description of how excluded files affect the daemon.incoming chmodThis parameter allows you to specify a set of comma-separated chmod strings that will affect the permissions of all incoming files (files that are being received by the daemon). These changes happen after all other permission calculations, and this will even override destination-default and/or existing permissions when the client does not specify --perms. See the description of the --chmod rsync option and the chmod(1) manpage for information on the format of this string.outgoing chmodThis parameter allows you to specify a set of comma-separated chmod strings that will affect the permissions of all outgoing files (files that are being sent out from the daemon). These changes happen first, making the sent permissions appear to be different than those stored in the filesystem itself. For instance, you could disable group write permissions on the server while having it appear to be on to the clients. See the description of the --chmod rsync option and the chmod(1) manpage for information on the format of this string.auth usersThis parameter specifies a comma and/or space-separated list of authorization rules. In its simplest form, you list the usernames that will be allowed to connect to this module. The usernames do not need to exist on the local system. The rules may contain shell wildcard characters that will be matched against the username provided by the client for authentication. If "auth users" is set then the client will be challenged to supply a username and password to connect to the module. A challenge response authentication protocol is used for this exchange. The plain text usernames and passwords are stored in the file specified by the "secrets file" parameter. The default is for all users to be able to connect without a password (this is called "anonymous rsync").In addition to username matching, you can specify groupname matching via a '@' prefix. When using groupname matching, the authenticating username must be a real user on the system, or it will be assumed to be a member of no groups. For example, specifying "@rsync" will match the authenticating user if the named user is a member of the rsync group.Finally, options may be specified after a colon (:). The options allow you to "deny" a user or a group, set the access to "ro" (read-only), or set the access to "rw" (read/write). Setting an auth-rule-specific ro/rw setting overrides the module's "read only" setting.Be sure to put the rules in the order you want them to be matched, because the checking stops at the first matching user or group, and that is the only auth that is checked. For example: auth users = joe:deny @guest:deny admin:rw @rsync:ro susan joe sam In the above rule, user joe will be denied access no matter what. Any user that is in the group "guest" is also denied access. The user "admin" gets access in read/write mode, but only if the admin user is not in group "guest" (because the admin user-matching rule would never be reached if the user is in group "guest"). Any other user who is in group "rsync" will get read-only access. Finally, users susan, joe, and sam get the ro/rw setting of the module, but only if the user didn't match an earlier group-matching rule.If you need to specify a user or group name with a space in it, start your list with a comma to indicate that the list should only be split on commas (though leading and trailing whitespace will also be removed, and empty entries are just ignored). For example: auth users = , joe:deny, @Some Group:deny, admin:rw, @RO Group:ro See the description of the secrets file for how you can have per-user passwords as well as per-group passwords. It also explains how a user can authenticate using their user password or (when applicable) a group password, depending on what rule is being authenticated.See also the section entitled "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE SHELL CONNECTION" in rsync(1) for information on how handle an rsyncd.conf-level username that differs from the remote-shell-level username when using a remote shell to connect to an rsync daemon.secrets fileThis parameter specifies the name of a file that contains the username:password and/or @groupname:password pairs used for authenticating this module. This file is only consulted if the "auth users" parameter is specified. The file is line-based and contains one name:password pair per line. Any line has a hash (#) as the very first character on the line is considered a comment and is skipped. The passwords can contain any characters but be warned that many operating systems limit the length of passwords that can be typed at the client end, so you may find that passwords longer than 8 characters don't work.The use of group-specific lines are only relevant when the module is being authorized using a matching "@groupname" rule. When that happens, the user can be authorized via either their "username:password" line or the "@groupname:password" line for the group that triggered the authentication.It is up to you what kind of password entries you want to include, either users, groups, or both. The use of group rules in "auth users" does not require that you specify a group password if you do not want to use shared passwords.There is no default for the "secrets file" parameter, you must choose a name (such as /etc/rsyncd.secrets). The file must normally not be readable by "other"; see "strict modes". If the file is not found or is rejected, no logins for a "user auth" module will be possible.strict modesThis parameter determines whether or not the permissions on the secrets file will be checked. If "strict modes" is true, then the secrets file must not be readable by any user ID other than the one that the rsync daemon is running under. If "strict modes" is false, the check is not performed. The default is true. This parameter was added to accommodate rsync running on the Windows operating system.hosts allowThis parameter allows you to specify a list of comma- and/or whitespace-separated patterns that are matched against a connecting client's hostname and IP address. If none of the patterns match, then the connection is rejected.Each pattern can be in one of five forms:a dotted decimal IPv4 address of the form a.b.c.d, or an IPv6 address of the form a:b:c::d:e:f. In this case the incoming machine's IP address must match exactly.an address/mask in the form ipaddr/n where ipaddr is the IP address and n is the number of one bits in the netmask. All IP addresses which match the masked IP address will be allowed in.an address/mask in the form ipaddr/maskaddr where ipaddr is the IP address and maskaddr is the netmask in dotted decimal notation for IPv4, or similar for IPv6, e.g. ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:: instead of /64. All IP addresses which match the masked IP address will be allowed in.a hostname pattern using wildcards. If the hostname of the connecting IP (as determined by a reverse lookup) matches the wildcarded name (using the same rules as normal unix filename matching), the client is allowed in. This only works if "reverse lookup" is enabled (the default).a hostname. A plain hostname is matched against the reverse DNS of the connecting IP (if "reverse lookup" is enabled), and/or the IP of the given hostname is matched against the connecting IP (if "forward lookup" is enabled, as it is by default). Any match will be allowed in.Note IPv6 link-local addresses can have a scope in the address specification:fe80::1%link1fe80::%link1/64fe80::%link1/ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::You can also combine "hosts allow" with a separate "hosts deny" parameter. If both parameters are specified then the "hosts allow" parameter is checked first and a match results in the client being able to connect. The "hosts deny" parameter is then checked and a match means that the host is rejected. If the host does not match either the "hosts allow" or the "hosts deny" patterns then it is allowed to connect.The default is no "hosts allow" parameter, which means all hosts can connect.hosts denyThis parameter allows you to specify a list of comma- and/or whitespace-separated patterns that are matched against a connecting clients hostname and IP address. If the pattern matches then the connection is rejected. See the "hosts allow" parameter for more information.The default is no "hosts deny" parameter, which means all hosts can connect.reverse lookupControls whether the daemon performs a reverse lookup on the client's IP address to determine its hostname, which is used for "hosts allow"/"hosts deny" checks and the "%h" log escape. This is enabled by default, but you may wish to disable it to save time if you know the lookup will not return a useful result, in which case the daemon will use the name "UNDETERMINED" instead.If this parameter is enabled globally (even by default), rsync performs the lookup as soon as a client connects, so disabling it for a module will not avoid the lookup. Thus, you probably want to disable it globally and then enable it for modules that need the information.forward lookupControls whether the daemon performs a forward lookup on any hostname specified in an hosts allow/deny setting. By default this is enabled, allowing the use of an explicit hostname that would not be returned by reverse DNS of the connecting IP.ignore errorsThis parameter tells rsyncd to ignore I/O errors on the daemon when deciding whether to run the delete phase of the transfer. Normally rsync skips the --delete step if any I/O errors have occurred in order to prevent disastrous deletion due to a temporary resource shortage or other I/O error. In some cases this test is counter productive so you can use this parameter to turn off this behavior.ignore nonreadableThis tells the rsync daemon to completely ignore files that are not readable by the user. This is useful for public archives that may have some non-readable files among the directories, and the sysadmin doesn't want those files to be seen at all.transfer loggingThis parameter enables per-file logging of downloads and uploads in a format somewhat similar to that used by ftp daemons. The daemon always logs the transfer at the end, so if a transfer is aborted, no mention will be made in the log file.If you want to customize the log lines, see the "log format" parameter.log formatThis parameter allows you to specify the format used for logging file transfers when transfer logging is enabled. The format is a text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character. An optional numeric field width may also be specified between the percent and the escape letter (e.g. "%-50n %8l %07p"). In addition, one or more apostrophes may be specified prior to a numerical escape to indicate that the numerical value should be made more human-readable. The 3 supported levels are the same as for the --human-readable command-line option, though the default is for human-readability to be off. Each added apostrophe increases the level (e.g. "%''l %'b %f").The default log format is "%o %h [%a] %m (%u) %f %l", and a "%t [%p] " is always prefixed when using the "log file" parameter. (A perl script that will summarize this default log format is included in the rsync source code distribution in the "support" subdirectory: rsyncstats.)The single-character escapes that are understood are as follows:%a the remote IP address (only available for a daemon)%b the number of bytes actually transferred%B the permission bits of the file (e.g. rwxrwxrwt)%c the total size of the block checksums received for the basis file (only when sending)%C the full-file checksum if it is known for the file. For older rsync protocols/versions, the checksum was salted, and is thus not a useful value (and is not displayed when that is the case). For the checksum to output for a file, either the --checksum option must be in-effect or the file must have been transferred without a salted checksum being used. See the --checksum-choice option for a way to choose the algorithm.%f the filename (long form on sender; no trailing "/")%G the gid of the file (decimal) or "DEFAULT"%h the remote host name (only available for a daemon)%i an itemized list of what is being updated%l the length of the file in bytes%L the string " -> SYMLINK", " => HARDLINK", or "" (where SYMLINK or HARDLINK is a filename)%m the module name%M the last-modified time of the file%n the filename (short form; trailing "/" on dir)%o the operation, which is "send", "recv", or "del." (the latter includes the trailing period)%p the process ID of this rsync session%P the module path%t the current date time%u the authenticated username or an empty string%U the uid of the file (decimal)For a list of what the characters mean that are output by "%i", see the --itemize-changes option in the rsync manpage.Note that some of the logged output changes when talking with older rsync versions. For instance, deleted files were only output as verbose messages prior to rsync 2.6.4.timeoutThis parameter allows you to override the clients choice for I/O timeout for this module. Using this parameter you can ensure that rsync won't wait on a dead client forever. The timeout is specified in seconds. A value of zero means no timeout and is the default. A good choice for anonymous rsync daemons may be 600 (giving a 10 minute timeout).refuse optionsThis parameter allows you to specify a space-separated list of rsync command line options that will be refused by your rsync daemon. You may specify the full option name, its one-letter abbreviation, or a wild-card string that matches multiple options. For example, this would refuse --checksum (-c) and all the various delete options:refuse options = c deleteThe reason the above refuses all delete options is that the options imply --delete, and implied options are refused just like explicit options. As an additional safety feature, the refusal of "delete" also refuses remove-source-files when the daemon is the sender; if you want the latter without the former, instead refuse "delete-*" -- that refuses all the delete modes without affecting --remove-source-files.When an option is refused, the daemon prints an error message and exits. To prevent all compression when serving files, you can use "dont compress = *" (see below) instead of "refuse options = compress" to avoid returning an error to a client that requests compression.dont compressThis parameter allows you to select filenames based on wildcard patterns that should not be compressed when pulling files from the daemon (no analogous parameter exists to govern the pushing of files to a daemon). Compression is expensive in terms of CPU usage, so it is usually good to not try to compress files that won't compress well, such as already compressed files.The "dont compress" parameter takes a space-separated list of case-insensitive wildcard patterns. Any source filename matching one of the patterns will not be compressed during transfer.See the --skip-compress parameter in the rsync(1) manpage for the list of file suffixes that are not compressed by default. Specifying a value for the "dont compress" parameter changes the default when the daemon is the sender.pre-xfer exec, post-xfer execYou may specify a command to be run before and/or after the transfer. If the pre-xfer exec command fails, the transfer is aborted before it begins. Any output from the script on stdout (up to several KB) will be displayed to the user when aborting, but is NOT displayed if the script returns success. Any output from the script on stderr goes to the daemon's stderr, which is typically discarded (though see --no-detatch option for a way to see the stderr output, which can assist with debugging).The following environment variables will be set, though some are specific to the pre-xfer or the post-xfer environment:RSYNC_MODULE_NAME: The name of the module being accessed.RSYNC_MODULE_PATH: The path configured for the module.RSYNC_HOST_ADDR: The accessing host's IP address.RSYNC_HOST_NAME: The accessing host's name.RSYNC_USER_NAME: The accessing user's name (empty if no user).RSYNC_PID: A unique number for this transfer.RSYNC_REQUEST: (pre-xfer only) The module/path info specified by the user. Note that the user can specify multiple source files, so the request can be something like "mod/path1 mod/path2", etc.RSYNC_ARG#: (pre-xfer only) The pre-request arguments are set in these numbered values. RSYNC_ARG0 is always "rsyncd", followed by the options that were used in RSYNC_ARG1, and so on. There will be a value of "." indicating that the options are done and the path args are beginning -- these contain similar information to RSYNC_REQUEST, but with values separated and the module name stripped off.RSYNC_EXIT_STATUS: (post-xfer only) the server side's exit value. This will be 0 for a successful run, a positive value for an error that the server generated, or a -1 if rsync failed to exit properly. Note that an error that occurs on the client side does not currently get sent to the server side, so this is not the final exit status for the whole transfer.RSYNC_RAW_STATUS: (post-xfer only) the raw exit value from waitpid() .Even though the commands can be associated with a particular module, they are run using the permissions of the user that started the daemon (not the module's uid/gid setting) without any chroot restrictions.CONFIG DIRECTIVESThere are currently two config directives available that allow a config file to incorporate the contents of other files: &include and &merge. Both allow a reference to either a file or a directory. They differ in how segregated the file's contents are considered to be.The &include directive treats each file as more distinct, with each one inheriting the defaults of the parent file, starting the parameter parsing as globals/defaults, and leaving the defaults unchanged for the parsing of the rest of the parent file.The &merge directive, on the other hand, treats the file's contents as if it were simply inserted in place of the directive, and thus it can set parameters in a module started in another file, can affect the defaults for other files, etc.When an &include or &merge directive refers to a directory, it will read in all the *.conf or *.inc files (respectively) that are contained inside that directory (without any recursive scanning), with the files sorted into alpha order. So, if you have a directory named "rsyncd.d" with the files "foo.conf", "bar.conf", and "baz.conf" inside it, this directive: &include /path/rsyncd.d would be the same as this set of directives: &include /path/rsyncd.d/bar.conf &include /path/rsyncd.d/baz.conf &include /path/rsyncd.d/foo.conf except that it adjusts as files are added and removed from the directory.The advantage of the &include directive is that you can define one or more modules in a separate file without worrying about unintended side-effects between the self-contained module files.The advantage of the &merge directive is that you can load config snippets that can be included into multiple module definitions, and you can also set global values that will affect connections (such as motd file), or globals that will affect other include files.For example, this is a useful /etc/rsyncd.conf file: port = 873 log file = /var/log/rsync.log pid file = /var/lock/rsync.lock &merge /etc/rsyncd.d &include /etc/rsyncd.d This would merge any /etc/rsyncd.d/*.inc files (for global values that should stay in effect), and then include any /etc/rsyncd.d/*.conf files (defining modules without any global-value cross-talk).AUTHENTICATION STRENGTHThe authentication protocol used in rsync is a 128 bit MD4 based challenge response system. This is fairly weak protection, though (with at least one brute-force hash-finding algorithm publicly available), so if you want really top-quality security, then I recommend that you run rsync over ssh. (Yes, a future version of rsync will switch over to a stronger hashing method.)Also note that the rsync daemon protocol does not currently provide any encryption of the data that is transferred over the connection. Only authentication is provided. Use ssh as the transport if you want encryption.Future versions of rsync may support SSL for better authentication and encryption, but that is still being investigated.EXAMPLESA simple rsyncd.conf file that allow anonymous rsync to a ftp area at /home/ftp would be:[ftp] path = /home/ftp comment = ftp export areaA more sophisticated example would be:uid = nobodygid = nobodyuse chroot = yesmax connections = 4syslog facility = local5pid file = /var/run/rsyncd.pid[ftp] path = /var/ftp/./pub comment = whole ftp area (approx 6.1 GB)[sambaftp] path = /var/ftp/./pub/samba comment = Samba ftp area (approx 300 MB)[rsyncftp] path = /var/ftp/./pub/rsync comment = rsync ftp area (approx 6 MB)[sambawww] path = /public_html/samba comment = Samba WWW pages (approx 240 MB)[cvs] path = /data/cvs comment = CVS repository (requires authentication) auth users = tridge, susan secrets file = /etc/rsyncd.secretsThe /etc/rsyncd.secrets file would look something like this:tridge:mypasssusan:herpassFILES/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.confSEE ALSOrsync(1)DIAGNOSTICSBUGSPlease report bugs! The rsync bug tracking system is online at http://rsync.samba.org/VERSIONThis man page is current for version 3.1.3 of rsync.CREDITSrsync is distributed under the GNU General Public License. See the file COPYING for details.The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.This program uses the zlib compression library written by Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.THANKSThanks to Warren Stanley for his original idea and patch for the rsync daemon. Thanks to Karsten Thygesen for his many suggestions and documentation!AUTHORrsync was written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras. Many people have later contributed to it.Mailing lists for support and development are available at http://lists.samba.org
[root@localhost2 ~]# useradd rsync -s /sbin/nologin -M[root@localhost2 ~]# id rsyncuid=502(rsync) gid=502(rsync) groups=502(rsync)[root@localhost2 ~]# vim /etc/rsyncd.conf  [root@localhost2 ~]# cat /etc/rsyncd.conf ##created by cai at 2018-2-24uid = rsyncgid = rsyncuse chroot = no  #当使用chroot为yes时,必须使用root权限,且不能备份path路径外的链接文件max connections = 200  #最大连接数timeout = 300    #超时无操作,自动退出pid file = /var/run/rsyncd.pid  #lock file = /var/run/rsync.locklog file = /var/log/rsyncd.log
##****模块的配置(可以为多个)****[data]    #模块名称必须用[]包围,比如要访问data,则地址应该是datauser@192.168.181.128:datapath = /data/  #模块根目录ignore errors  #忽略错误read only = false  #只读list = false  #是否允许列出模块中的内容hosts allow = 192.168.181.128/24  #允许hostshosts deny = *  #除允许主机外的所有主机都拒绝auth users = rsync_body  #模块验证密码文件,可以放在全局配置里secrets file = /etc/rsync.password  #密码文件
comment = created by cairui  #注释
exclude = test1/ test2/  #排除目录,使用空格分割开
[root@localhost2 ~]# echo 'rsync_body:admin' >> /etc/rsync.password[root@localhost2 ~]# cat /etc/rsync.password rsync_body:admin[root@localhost2 ~]# chmod 600 /etc/rsync.password [root@localhost2 ~]# rsync --daemon[root@localhost2 ~]# ps -ef | grep rsync | grep -v greproot 1575 1 0 16:27 ? 00:00:00 rsync --daemon[root@localhost2 ~]# netstat -lntup| grep 873tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:873 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 1575/rsync tcp 0 0 :::873 :::* LISTEN 1575/rsync [root@localhost2 ~]# lsof -i:873-bash: lsof: command not found[root@localhost2 ~]# yum install lsof* -yLoaded plugins: fastestmirrorSetting up Install ProcessLoading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirrors.163.com * extras: mirrors.163.com * updates: centos.ustc.edu.cnbase | 3.7 kB 00:00 extras | 3.4 kB 00:00 updates | 3.4 kB 00:00 Resolving Dependencies--> Running transaction check---> Package lsof.x86_64 0:4.82-5.el6 will be installed--> Finished Dependency ResolutionDependencies Resolved============================================================================== Package Arch Version Repository Size==============================================================================Installing: lsof x86_64 4.82-5.el6 base 324 kTransaction Summary==============================================================================Install 1 Package(s)Total download size: 324 kInstalled size: 900 kDownloading Packages:lsof-4.82-5.el6.x86_64.rpm | 324 kB 00:00 Running rpm_check_debugRunning Transaction TestTransaction Test SucceededRunning Transaction Installing : lsof-4.82-5.el6.x86_64 1/1 Verifying : lsof-4.82-5.el6.x86_64 1/1 Installed: lsof.x86_64 0:4.82-5.el6 Complete![root@localhost2 ~]# lsof -i:873COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAMErsync 1575 root 4u IPv4 14021 0t0 TCP *:rsync (LISTEN)rsync 1575 root 5u IPv6 14022 0t0 TCP *:rsync (LISTEN)
[root@localhost1 ~]# echo "admin" >> /etc/rsync.password[root@localhost1 ~]# cat /etc/rsync.password admin[root@localhost1 ~]# chmod 600 /etc/rsync.password [root@localhost1 ~]# ll /etc/rsync.password -rw------- 1 root root 6 Feb 24 03:54 /etc/rsync.password
[root@localhost1 ~]# rsync -avzP /tmp/666 rsync_body@192.168.181.129::data --password-file=/etc/rsync.password @ERROR: chdir failed    #错误原因:没有在备份服务器上创建/data目录,也就是/etc/rsyncd.conf里面的path = /data/没有创建rsync error: error starting client-server protocol (code 5) at main.c(1503) [sender=3.0.6][root@localhost1 ~]# rsync -avzP /tmp/666 rsync_body@192.168.181.129::data --password-file=/etc/rsync.password sending incremental file list666           0 100%    0.00kB/s    0:00:00 (xfer#1, to-check=0/1)rsync: mkstemp ".666.oI0gMi" (in data) failed: Permission denied (13)  #/data权限不足,修改/data权限sent 60 bytes  received 27 bytes  174.00 bytes/sectotal size is 0  speedup is 0.00rsync error: some files/attrs were not transferred (see previous errors) (code 23) at main.c(1039) [sender=3.0.6]

 [root@localhost2 data]# chmod 777 /data

 [root@localhost1 ~]# rsync -avzP /tmp/666 rsync_body@192.168.181.129::data --password-file=/etc/rsync.password 

  sending incremental file list
  666
  0 100% 0.00kB/s 0:00:00 (xfer#1, to-check=0/1)

  sent 60 bytes received 27 bytes 174.00 bytes/sec
  total size is 0 speedup is 0.00

  [root@localhost2 data]# ll
  total 0
  -rw-r--r--. 1 rsync rsync 0 Feb 17 18:55 666

[root@localhost2 data]# mkdir cairui[root@localhost2 data]# lltotal 4-rw-r--r--. 1 rsync rsync    0 Feb 17 18:55 666drwxr-xr-x. 2 root  root  4096 Feb 24 16:58 cairui[root@localhost1 ~]# rsync -avzP rsync_body@192.168.181.129::data --password-file=/etc/rsync.password ~receiving incremental file list./666           0 100%    0.00kB/s    0:00:00 (xfer#1, to-check=1/3)cairui/sent 86 bytes  received 199 bytes  114.00 bytes/sectotal size is 0  speedup is 0.00[root@localhost1 ~]# lltotal 24-rw-r--r--  1 root root    0 Feb 17 20:06 123.txt-rw-r--r--  1  502  502    0 Feb 17 18:55 666-rw-------. 1 root root  929 Feb  9 10:03 anaconda-ks.cfgdrwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Feb 24  2018 cairui-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 9615 Feb  9 10:03 install.log-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 3161 Feb  9 10:01 install.log.syslog

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